Yang L.-G.,Guangdong Provincial Center for and Skin Diseases Control and Prevention |
Tucker J.D.,Guangdong Provincial Center for and Skin Diseases Control and Prevention |
Liu F.-Y.,Guangdong Provincial Center for and Skin Diseases Control and Prevention |
Ren X.-Q.,Guangdong Provincial Center for and Skin Diseases Control and Prevention |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Objectives:To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China.Methods:Point-of-care syphilis testing was provided at 71 health facilities in less developed, rural areas of Guangdong Province. Positive samples were confirmed at a local referral center by toluidine red unheated serum tests (TRUST) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) tests.Results:Altogether 27,150 pregnant women in rural Guangdong were screened for syphilis. 106 (0.39%) syphilis cases were diagnosed, of which 78 (73.6%) received treatment for syphilis. Multivariate analysis revealed that older pregnant women (31-35 years old, aOR 2.7, 95% CI 0.99-7.32; older than 35 years old, aOR 5.9, 95% CI 2.13-16.34) and those with a history of adverse pregnant outcomes (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 2.30-5.76) were more likely to be infected with syphilis.Conclusions:A high prevalence of syphilis exists among pregnant women living in rural areas of South China. Enhanced integration of syphilis screening with other routine women's health services (OB GYN, family planning) may be useful for controlling China's syphilis epidemic. © 2013 Yang et al.
Giacani L.,University of Washington |
Brandt S.L.,University of Washington |
Brandt S.L.,Indiana University |
Ke W.,University of Washington |
And 10 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2015
An effective mechanism for introduction of phenotypic diversity within a bacterial population exploits changes in the length of repetitive DNA elements located within gene promoters. This phenomenon, known as phase variation, causes rapid activation or silencing of gene expression and fosters bacterial adaptation to new or changing environments. Phase variation often occurs in surface-exposed proteins, and in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the syphilis agent, it was reported to affect transcription of three putative outer membrane protein (OMP)-encoding genes. When the T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols strain genome was initially annotated, the TP0126 open reading frame was predicted to include a poly(G) tract and did not appear to have a predicted signal sequence that might suggest the possibility of its being an OMP. Here we show that the initial annotation was incorrect, that this poly(G) is instead located within the TP0126 promoter, and that it varies in length in vivo during experimental syphilis. Additionally, we show that TP0126 transcription is affected by changes in the poly(G) length consistent with regulation by phase variation. In silico analysis of the TP0126 open reading frame based on the experimentally identified transcriptional start site shortens this hypothetical protein by 69 amino acids, reveals a predicted cleavable signal peptide, and suggests structural homology with the OmpW family of porins. Circular dichroism of recombinant TP0126 supports structural homology to OmpW. Together with the evidence that TP0126 is fully conserved among T. pallidum subspecies and strains, these data suggest an important role for TP0126 in T. pallidum biology and syphilis pathogenesis. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.
Lu P.,Guangdong Provincial Center for and Skin Diseases Control and Prevention |
Zheng D.-C.,Guangdong Provincial Center for and Skin Diseases Control and Prevention |
Fang C.,Sun Yat Sen University |
Huang J.-M.,Guangdong Provincial Center for and Skin Diseases Control and Prevention |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroimmunology | Year: 2016
Little is known regarding protein responses to syphilis infection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients presenting with neurosyphilis. Protein and antibody arrays offer a new opportunity to gain insights into global protein expression profiles in these patients. Here we obtained CSF samples from 46 syphilis patients, 25 of which diagnosed as having central nervous system involvement based on clinical and laboratory findings. The CSF samples were then analyzed using a RayBioH L-Series 507 Antibody Array system designed to simultaneously analyze 507 specific cytokines. The results indicated that 41 molecules showed higher levels in patients with neurosyphilis in comparison with patients without neural involvement. For validation by single target ELISA, we selected five of them (MIP-1a, I-TAC/CXCL11, Urokinase plasminogen activator [uPA], and Oncostatin M) because they have previously been found to be involved in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The ELISA tests confirmed that uPA levels were significantly higher in the CSF of neurosyphilis patients (109.1 ± 7.88 pg/ml) versus patients without CNS involvement (63.86 ± 4.53 pg/ml, p < 0.0001). There was also a clear correlation between CSF uPA levels and CSF protein levels (p = 0.0128) as well as CSF-VDRL titers (p = 0.0074) used to diagnose neurosyphilis. No significant difference between the two groups of patients, however, was found in uPA levels in the serum, suggesting specific activation of the inflammatory system in the CNS but not the periphery in neurosyphilis patients. We conclude that measurements of uPA levels in CSF may be an additional parameter for diagnosing neurosyphilis. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.