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Liu W.-X.,China Medical University at Heping | Wang T.,China Medical University at Heping | Zhou F.,China Medical University at Heping | Wang Y.,China Medical University at Heping | And 6 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2015

Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Stewart R.L.,University of Kentucky | Carpenter B.L.,University of Kentucky | West D.S.,University of Kentucky | Knifley T.,University of Kentucky | And 8 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

S100A4 (metastasin-1), a metastasis-associated protein and marker of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition, contributes to several hallmarks of cancer and has been implicated in the progression of several types of cancer. However, the impacts of S100A4 signaling in lung cancer progression and its potential use as a target for therapy in lung cancer have not been properly explored. Using established lung cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that S100A4 knockdown reduces cell proliferation, invasion and three-dimensional invasive growth, while overexpression of S100A4 increases invasive potential. In patient-derived tissues, S100A4 is preferentially elevated in lung adenocarcinoma. This elevation is associated with lymphovascular invasion and decreased overall survival. In addition, depletion of S100A4 by shRNA inhibits NF-κB activity and decreases TNFα-induced MMP9 expression. Furthermore, inhibition of the NF-κB/MMP9 axis decreases lung carcinoma invasive potential. Niclosamide, a reported inhibitor of S100A4, blocks expression and function of S100A4 with a reduction in proliferation, invasion and NF-κB-mediated MMP9 expression. Collectively, this study highlights the importance of the S100A4/NF-κB/MMP9 axis in lung cancer invasion and provides a rationale for targeting S100A4 to combat lung cancer. Source

Liu W.-X.,Liaoning Medical University | Zhou F.,Liaoning Medical University | Wang Y.,Liaoning Medical University | Wang T.,Liaoning Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Acta Physiologica | Year: 2015

Aim: Voluntary exercise has been shown to protect against the development of ulcerative colitis, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that prior voluntary exercise would attenuate colonic inflammation and ameliorate clinical symptoms in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis by increasing glucocorticoid production and up-regulating PPAR-γ activity in the colon. Methods: Male C57Bl/6J mice were assigned to sedentary, exercise, exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 or glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor metyrapone. Following the completion of the 30 days' exercise training programme, they were treated with or without 2% DSS in drinking water for 5 days, followed by 5 days of regular water. Results: Compared with sedentary mice, exercise mice exhibited improved clinical symptoms (weight loss and diarrhoea) and less inflammation (expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and histological injury) in response to DSS, whereas these beneficial effects were abolished by both GW9662 and metyrapone treatment. Molecular studies revealed that exercise significantly increased the expression of PPAR-γ, augmented the expression of steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1 and CYP11B1) and elevated corticosterone levels in the colon. GW9662 treatment reversed the expression of PPAR-γ without altering the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and corticosterone secretion in the colon, while metyrapone treatment blocked glucocorticoid secretion and abrogated the increase in PPAR-γ expression in the colon. Conclusion: These findings suggest that prior voluntary exercise suppresses the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon in response to inflammatory challenge by up-regulating glucocorticoid-mediated PPAR-γ activity, contributing to protection against the development of ulcerative colitis. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Source

Kamijima M.,Nagoya City University | Wang H.,Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment | Yamanoshita O.,Chubu University | Ito Y.,Nagoya City University | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Dermatological Science | Year: 2013

Background: Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent which can cause severe generalized dermatitis, i.e., occupational TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. Reactivation of latent human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) can occur in such patients, which has made TCE known as a causative chemical of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). Objective: This study aimed to clarify HHV6 status, cytokine profiles and their association with rash phenotypes in patients with TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. Methods: HHV6 DNA copy numbers, anti-HHV6 antibody titers, and cytokines were measured in blood prospectively sampled 5-7 times from 28 hospitalized patients with the disease. Results: The patients (19 had exfoliative dermatitis (ED) and 9 had non-ED type rash) generally met the diagnostic criteria for DIHS. Viral reactivation defined as increases in either HHV6 DNA (≥100 genomic copies/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells) or antibody titers was identified in 24 (89%) patients. HHV6 DNA, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were remarkably higher in the patients than in the healthy workers (p<0.01). Positive correlations between HHV6 DNA, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were significant (p<0.05) except for that between HHV6 DNA and IFN-γ. An increase in HHV6 DNA was positively associated with an increase in TNF-α on admission (p<0.01). HHV6 DNA, the antibody titers, TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations were significantly higher in ED than in the non-ED type (p<0.05). Conclusion: Reactivated HHV6 and the increased cytokines could be biomarkers of TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. The higher-level reactivation and stronger humoral responses were associated with ED-type rash. © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Source

Huang Y.,Southern Medical University | Xia L.,Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment | Wu Q.,Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment | Zeng Z.,Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: We documented previously the entity of trichloroethylene (TCE) hypersensitivity syndrome (THS) in occupational workers. Objectives: To identify the culprit causative compound, determine the type of hypersensitivity of THS, and establish a screening test for subjects at risk of THS. Methods: TCE and its main metabolites chloral hydrate (CH), trichloroethanol (TCOH) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were used as allergens at different concentrations in skin patch tests. The study included 19 case subjects diagnosed with occupational THS, 22 control healthy workers exposed to TCE (exposure >12 weeks), and 20 validation new workers exposed to TCE for <12 weeks free of THS. All subjects were followed-up for 12 weeks after the patch test. Results: The highest patch test positive rate in subjects with THS was for CH, followed by TCOH, TCA and TCE. The CH patch test positive rate was 100% irrespective of CH concentrations (15%, 10% and 5%). The TCOH patch test positive rate was concentration-dependent (89.5%, 73.7%and 52.6% for 5%, 0.5% and 0.05%, respectively). Lower patch test positive rates were noted for TCA and TCE. All patch tests (including four allergens) were all negative in each of the 22 control subjects. None of the subjects of the validation group had a positive 15% CH patch test. Conclusions: Chloral hydrate seems to be the culprit causative compound of THS and type IV seems to be the major type of hypersensitivity of THS. The CH patch test could be potentially useful for screening workers at risk of THS. © 2015 Huang et al. Source

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