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Yuan L.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Yuan L.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization | Yuan L.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture | Geiser F.,University of New England of Australia | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many physiological processes through post-transcriptional control of gene expression and are a major part of the small noncoding RNAs (snRNA). As hibernators can survive at low body temperatures (Tb) for many months without suffering tissue damage, understanding the mechanisms that enable them to do so are of medical interest. Because the brain integrates peripheral physiology and white adipose tissue (WAT) is the primary energy source during hibernation, we hypothesized that both of these organs play a crucial role in hibernation, and thus, their activity would be relatively increased during hibernation. We carried out the first genomic analysis of small RNAs, specifically miRNAs, in the brain and WAT of a hibernating bat (Myotis ricketti) by comparing deeply torpid with euthermic individual bats using high-throughput sequencing (Solexa) and qPCR validation of expression levels. A total of 196 miRNAs (including 77 novel bat-specific miRNAs) were identified, and of these, 49 miRNAs showed significant differences in expression during hibernation, including 33 in the brain and 25 in WAT (P≤0.01 & |logFC|≥1). Stem-loop qPCR confirmed the miRNA expression patterns identified by Solexa sequencing. Moreover, 31 miRNAs showed tissue- or state-specific expression, and six miRNAs with counts >100 were specifically expressed in the brain. Putative target gene prediction combined with KEGG pathway and GO annotation showed that many essential processes of both organs are significantly correlated with differentially expressed miRNAs during bat hibernation. This is especially evident with down-regulated miRNAs, indicating that many physiological pathways are altered during hibernation. Thus, our novel findings of miRNAs and Interspersed Elements in a hibernating bat suggest that brain and WAT are active with respect to the miRNA expression activity during hibernation. © 2015 Yuan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Hua L.,Guangdong Entomological Institute South China Institute of Endangered Animals | Hua L.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization | Hua L.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture | Gong S.,Guangdong Entomological Institute South China Institute of Endangered Animals | And 7 more authors.
ZooKeys | Year: 2015

Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. © Liushuai Hua et al.

Qin J.,China Agricultural University | Qin J.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Su Q.-Q.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Wang D.,China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2015

Studies have rarely focused on the effect of cabergoline dosage and duration on normal male animal and human. We examined the serum concentrations of four hormones, reproductive organ weight, and sperm quality of adult male lesser rice-field rats (Rattus losea) after cabergoline treatment. Forty male rats were randomly divided into five groups and treated with cabergoline given by gavage daily for 3 d at three doses (0, 50, and 100 μg/kg). Animals were euthanized at 7 and 24 days after the end of treatment. Results showed that cabergoline did not affect follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Compared with control, testosterone concentrations decreased significantly by 48.6% at 7 d after treatment with 100 μg/kg cabergoline. Luteinizing hormone concentrations were significantly reduced by cabergoline dosage and time course. Time course affected sperm density and sperm deformity rate. Cabergoline dosage and time course significantly affected male sperm vitality at 50 μg/kg. Moreover, cabergoline significantly decreased the percentage of 'rapid', 'slow or sluggish' progressive motility sperms, and increased the percentage of "immotility" sperms. The present study suggests that cabergoline may reduce luteinizing hormone level, and impair sperm quality, which hint weakening reproductive effects on male R. losea. Copyright 2015 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Zhang X.J.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Zhang X.J.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization | Zhang X.J.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture | Jiang H.Y.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | And 11 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to provide comprehensive insights into the genetic background of sturgeon by transcriptome study. We performed a de novo assembly of the Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii transcriptome using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. A total of 148,817 non-redundant unigenes with base length of approximately 121,698,536 bp and ranges from 201 to 26,789 bp were obtained. All the unigenes were classified into 3368 distinct categories and 145,449 singletons by homologous transcript cluster analysis. In all, 46,865 (31.49%) unigenes showed homologous matches with Nr database and 32,214 (21.65%) unigenes were matched to Nt database. In total, 24,862 unigenes were categorized into significantly enriched 52 function groups by GO analysis, and 38,436 unigenes were classified into 25 groups by KOG prediction, as well as 128 enriched KEGG pathways were identified by 45,598 unigenes (P < 0.05). Subsequently, a total of 19,860 SSRs markers were identified with the abundant di-nucleotide type (10,658; 53.67%) and the most AT/TA motif repeats (2689; 13.54%). A total of 1341 conserved lncRNAs were identified by a customized pipeline. Our study provides new sequence and function information for A. schrenckii, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on sturgeon species. The huge number of potential SSRs and putatively conserved lncRNAs isolated by the transcriptome also shed light on research in many fields, including the evolution, conservation management, and biological processes in sturgeon. © FUNPEC-RP.

Wu W.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Wu W.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization | Wu W.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture | Huang Z.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | And 10 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2015

The drywood termite Cryptotermes domesticus is an important worldwide pest with limited genomic resources that causes substantial damage to dry timber and structural lumber. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing for Cr. domesticus pseudergate using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 108,745,470 clean reads were collected and assembled into 302,979 contigs with an average length of 648. bp and an N50 length of 893. bp. A total of 185,248 unigenes and 100,680 proteins were identified among the assembled contigs. Of these, there were 152,317 (50.27%) contigs with significant similarity to publicly available databases. To understand how the termites respond to phylogenetically diverse wood species, variations in gene expression were examined among pseudergates feeding on three wood species from different plant families, Casuarina equisetifolia (CE), Koompassia excelsa (KE) and Myristica sp. (MS). A total of 417 (118 up-regulated/299 down-regulated), 599 (148 up-regulated/451 down-regulated) and 505 (223 up-regulated/282 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes were detected in KE vs. CE, KE vs. MS and CE vs. MS, respectively. Digital gene expression analysis indicated that different wood species played an important role in the expression of termite genes, such as genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and proteins with catalytic activity and hydrolase activity. Additionally, the genes encoding cellulase were identified and analyzed. This study provides the first primary transcriptome of Cr. domesticus and lays a foundation for future functional genomics studies in the feeding responses. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Jin X.-X.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Jin X.-X.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization | Jin X.-X.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture | Li C.-D.,Northeast Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
ZooKeys | Year: 2016

Three new species of Arescon Walker, 1846, A. gaoligongensis Jin & Li, sp. n., A. sparsiciliatus Jin & Li, sp. n. and A. stenopterus Jin & Li, sp. n. are described. A key to the Chinese species is given and photomicrographs are provided to illustrate morphological characters. All the specimens are deposited in the insect collections of Northeast Forestry University, China. © Xiang-Xiang Jin et al.

Jiang K.,Sun Yat Sen University | Jiang K.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Han R.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Han R.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization | Han R.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Cordyceps militaris is an important medicinal fungus. Commercialization of this fungus needs to improve the fruiting body production by molecular engineering. An improved Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method was used to select an insertional mutant (g38) which exhibited fast stromatal differentiation and increased yield. The Rhf1 gene encoding filamentation protein was destroyed by a single T-DNA and no Rhf1 transcription was detected in mutant g38. To verify the function of the Rhf1 gene, RNA interference plasmid and overexpression vector of the Rhf1 gene were constructed and transferred to the wild-type JM4 by ATMT. Fast stromatal differentiation and larger fruiting bodies were found in the RNAi-Rhf1 mutants (JM-iRhf1). In the overexpression mutants (JM-OERhf1), neither stromata nor fruiting bodies appeared. The rescued strain (38-OERhf1) showed similar growth characteristics as JM4. These results indicated that the Rhf1 gene was involved in the stromatal differentiation and the shape formation of fruiting bodies. © 2015, Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Li Z.-Q.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Li Z.-Q.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization | Li Z.-Q.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture | Ke Y.-L.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2016

Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity. © 2015 The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Su Q.-Q.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Chen Y.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Qin J.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Wang T.-L.,Hainan Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Animal Biology | Year: 2016

Mifepristone and quinestrol are effective drugs for controlling rodent fertility, but their inhibitory effectiveness during premating, early pregnancy, and late pregnancy is unknown. In this study, six groups of eight female Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) were administered with mifepristone, quinestrol, or a control for three days during premating, early pregnancy, or late pregnancy. In the mifepristone-treated groups, the premating females bred, whereas the early and late pregnant females did not. The reproductive rate, litter size, average body mass at birth, and survival rate of pups did not significantly differ between the mifepristone-treated premating group and the control group. By contrast, quinestrol treatment completely inhibited fertility during the three reproductive phases. In addition, fertility was not completely restored in the second pairing. The reproductive rates were higher for mifepristone, both during early and late pregnancy, than for quinestrol, but both were lower than the control. Thus, mifepristone and quinestrol both inhibited the fertility of female Brandt's voles at different reproductive periods. These results suggest that these two sterilants could be delivered during the reproductive season of the target pest animal. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2016.

Chen Y.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Chen Y.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization | Chen Y.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture | Liu Q.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Each animal population has its own acoustic signature which facilitates identification, communication and reproduction. The sonar signals of bats can convey social information, such as species identity and contextual information. The goal of this study was to determine whether bats adjust their echolocation call structures to mutually recognize and communicate when they encounter the bats from different colonies. We used the intermediate leafnosed bats (Hipposideros larvatus) as a case study to investigate the variations of echolocation calls when bats from one colony were introduced singly into the home cage of a new colony or two bats from different colonies were cohabitated together for one month. Our experiments showed that the single bat individual altered its peak frequency of echolocation calls to approach the call of new colony members and two bats from different colonies adjusted their call frequencies toward each other to a similar frequency after being chronically cohabitated. These results indicate that the 'compromise' in echolocation calls might be used to ensure effective mutual communication among bats. © 2016 Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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