Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration

Guangzhou, China

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration

Guangzhou, China

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Cao J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cao J.,Guangdong key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Li Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Liu C.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yuan X.,Sun Yat Sen University
Jilin Daxue Xuebao (Diqiu Kexue Ban)/Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) | Year: 2017

To find out the relationship between the characteristic of geogas particles and concealed deposit, geogas particles have been sampled from Bingba copper deposit in Guanling County of Guizhou Province, and analyzed by transmission electron microscope. The results revealed that geogas particles are in the form of particle aggregations and individual particles, of which the former is dominant. The shapes of individual particles are mainly spherical, platy, cuboidal, ellipsoidal, strip shaped, and irregular, with a size generally ranging from several nanometers to 300 nm. The shapes of particle aggregations are mainly chain-shaped, rounded, and irregular. The elemental composition of geogas particles shows a good correlation with concealed metal ore bodies. High concentrations of Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn are found in many geogas particles, which have certain significance for future mineral exploration. Moreover, by comparing the characteristics of geogas particles from different concealed metal mines the authors find that the types, elemental composition and morphology of geogas particles are different in different types of deposits, but with great similarities over the same type of deposit. There is good correlation between characteristics of geogas particles in deposit and deep concealed deposit. There is a great similarity in elemental composition and sizes of particles under similar geological environment, though there still exist some differences in the combination of particles and shape. Therefore, by analyzing the characteristics of geogas particles from concealed metal deposits, models of geogas particles characteristics from different deposit types can be established which is of great value for concealed deposit exploration. © 2017, Science Press. All right reserved.


Zhang K.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang K.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Ma Z.,Beifang University of Nationalities | Grapes R.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 2 more authors.
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms | Year: 2014

The northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, a particularly important area to understand the mechanism of plateau formation, is characterized by large transpressional arcuate faults. There is debate on the amount of Quaternary sinistral displacement on the major Haiyuan Fault. Previously unrecognized systemic asymmetrical valleys have developed between the Haiyuan and Xiangshan faults. Southeast tilting and sinistral displacement on the northeast side of the Haiyuan Fault resulted in southeast migration of large rivers and asymmetrical widening of their valleys, leaving a systematic distribution of tilted strath terraces along their northwest sides. Where asymmetrical widening created by tilting kept pace with sinistral displacement, rivers have not been deflected, and the increase in valley width downstream from the fault should equate to total lateral displacement since river formation (e.g. Yuan River, a 7 km asymmetrical valley with a c. 2.2 Ma paleomagnetic age). Where river deflection and asymmetrical valley growth are coeval, valley width is less than total horizontal displacement (e.g. Hebao River, a c. 2.1 km asymmetrical valley with c. 2 km deflection). All rivers north of the Haiyuan Fault converge to cut across the Xiangshan Mountains as a gorge. Northeast thrusting of the upthrown side of the Xiangshan Fault has resulted in degradation and related strath terrace formation as the valleys asymmetrically widened. A probable earthquake-induced landslide caused by movement on the Xiangshan Fault in latest Pleistocene blocked the gorge causing aggradation along all rivers and their tributaries. Deposition terraces were formed after the landslide dam was breached. Together with previous research on the Xiangshan Fault, it is concluded that there has been c. 7 km of Quaternary sinistral displacement on the Haiyuan and Xiangshan faults along the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau since the formation of rivers that intersect them. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wang J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wang J.,Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources | Wang J.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Chen Z.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 3 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2014

Newly discovered yellow silt widely distributed in the coastal area of south China was analyzed using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and laser particle size (LPS) methods in the present paper. The authors take the lead in trying to synthetically judge the depositional environment, transporting agent and forming mechanism of the yellow silt from angles of output forms of iron minerals as well as grain size distribution features of the samples chose from three representative sections and a drill core. The DRS first derivative curves show the peak height of iron minerals decreasing from hematite (565 nm) to goethite (505 and 435 nm), which reflects a relatively dry, cold climate that coincides with the aeolian loess widely distributed in the northwest China, but reverses of the fluvial and marine deposits which experienced a well hydration in humid conditions over a long period of time in study area. LPS analysis show that grain size from top to bottom of the sections and drill core are homogeneous and typical of aeolian sediments. The grain size distribution in the yellow silt is characterized by double peaks with main peak of 10~50 μm and a secondary peak of <5 μm, similar to that of loess in northwest China but quite different from associated fluvial and marine deposits featured by unidirectional change of allocation mode of the grain size groups. Based on grain size analysis, DRS results, age range of 10~80 ka, and spatial distribution that both of the positive landforms and buried topographies in the coastal area of south China have this kind of sediments, the yellow silt is considered to represent an aeolian deposit formed during the last glacial period, which is called "loess-like deposits" in our study.


Luo S.-Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cao J.-J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cao J.-J.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Wu Z.-Q.,Sun Yat Sen University
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2014

The soil samples uniformly overlying the Bairendaba deposit of the Inner Mongolia grassland were collected, and analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and near infrared spectrum (NIR), for exploring the origins of the soil from the grassland mining area and the relationship with the underground rock. The results show that the samples consist of quartz, graphite, carbonate, hornblende, mica, chlorite, montmorillonite, illite, berlinite, diaspore, azurite, hematite, etc. These indicate that the soil samples were not only from the weathering products of the surface rock, but also from the underground rock mass and the alteration of the wall rock. The azurite and the hematite contained in the soil, mainly coming from the oxidation zone of the ore-bodies, can be used as the prospecting marks. The alteration mineral assemblage is mainly chlorite-illite-montmorillonite and it experienced the alteration process of potassic alteration→silicification→carbonatization→silk greisenization→clayization. Also, the wall rock alteration and the physical weathering processes can be accurately restored by analyzing the combination of the alteration minerals, which can provide important reference information for the deep ore prospecting and the ore deposit genesis study, improving the rate of the prospecting. The XRD and NIR with the characteristics of the economy and quickness can be used for the identification of mineral composition of soil, and in the study of mineral and mineral deposits. Especially, NIR has its unique superiority, that is, its sample request is low, and it can analyze a batch of samples quickly. With the development of INR, it will be more and more widely applied in geological field, and can play an important role in the ore exploration.


Wu Z.-Q.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wu Z.-Q.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Cao J.-J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cao J.-J.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | And 3 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2013

The authros collected the soil samples uniformly above the target ore district and analyzed them with the near infrared spectrum. The results show that the NIR could identify the minerals in the soil well, including the combination of altered minerals roughly. Contrasting these mineral combination with the characteristics of orebody, we found that there was a certain degree of correlation between the soil and the concealed orebody, especially the altered minerals which was consistent with the altered conditions of this deposit. Therefore, we thought that any mineral composition of soil could be used to indicate some information from deep orebody and provide some basis for finding this type of copper. In addition, we also thought that the NIR information contained in the soil above the oreboday could serve as an effective research method inproviding some basis for prospecting. And we can use it for other deposits, especially for the deeply concealed orebody and some regions with a fragile geological environment.


Jiang L.-T.,Sun Yat Sen University | Jiang L.-T.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Chen G.-N.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen G.-N.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Peng Z.-L.,Sun Yat Sen University
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2013

Red pigment of continental red-bed is known originating from the fine-particle hematite in the rocks. Advance of researches on the origin of continental red-bed demonstrates that the red pigment of red-bed originated from its diagenetic but not depositional process. The high diagenetic temperature causes the dehydration of iron hydrate to form hematite, generating the red pigment. For examining the above hypothesis, the authors of this paper designed an experiment to approach the reddening process, i.e. formation of the red pigment of continental red-bed. Black ooze sampled from the Holocene sediments of the Pearl River Delta was heated in different ways. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) of those heated ooze samples were detected with Perkin-Elmer Lamdba 950 ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared spectrophotometer, and moreover, red-values of the samples were calculated for determining their coloring levels. Iron in black ooze sediment is predominantly in the form of goethite. Experimental results verified that initial dehydration-temperature of goethite is about 150°C, either enhancing temperature or prolonging heating time is accompanied with decreasing goethite and increasing hematite, and a positive relationship exists between red-value of samples and peak-height of hematite. The experimental results strongly support the idea of thermal origin of continental red-bed.


Yuan X.-L.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yuan X.-L.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Cao J.-J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cao J.-J.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | And 8 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2013

In the present paper, characteristics of material compositions, phase structures, surface element states, and transformation mechanism of oxidized particles from Dongshengmiao pyrite-polymetallic sulfide deposit were studied using modern analytical testing technology including XRD, FTIR and XPS. The results show that the samples consist of gypsum, calcite, quartz, muscovite, goethite, organic matter, etc. Primary ore in deep oxidation zone mainly under went such processes as oxidization, hydrolysis, dehydration and carbonation. Compared to the surface oxidation zone of arid and extremely arid regions in the northwestern China, the oxidation process and oxidizing condition of the deep oxidation zone were less complex. New mineral type was also not found, and extensively developed sulfate minerals were rare to be seen. The research results can not only be applied to mineral identification of oxidized particles from this type of ore deposit but also play an important role in ore exploration, mining, mineral processing, etc.


Liao Y.-P.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cao J.-J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cao J.-J.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Wu Z.-Q.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 2 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2015

Take the cores and surface weathered soil from the Cretaceous red beds in the western of Dongshengmiao mine of Inner Mongolia and analysis with near-infrared spectroscopy. The result shows that near-infrared spectroscopy can identify mineral quickly through the characteristic absorption peaks of each group. The Cretaceous red beds in the western of Dongshengmiao mine is argillaceous cementation, it is mainly composed of quartz, feldspar, montmorillonite, illite, chlorite, muscovite etc, the mineral composition is mainly affected by the upstream source area. The clay mineral like montmorillonite water swelling and uneven drying shrinkage expands the original crack and creates new cracks, reduces its strength, which is the mainly reason of its disintegration. According to the composition of clay mineral, we speculate its weathering process is mainly physical weathering, the climate during the weathering is cold and dry. The results can not only improve the geological feature of the mining area, but also show that the near-infrared spectroscopy technology can analyze the mineral composition of soil and rock effectively on the basis of Mineral spectroscopy, which demonstrates the feasibility of the near-infrared spectroscopy can analyze minerals in soil and rock quickly, that shows the feasibility in geology study, provides new ideas for the future research of soil and rock. © 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Luo S.-Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cao J.-J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cao J.-J.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Yi Z.-B.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 2 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2016

The six groups of fault gouge samples were collected in different middle-sections from the underground mine of the Weilasituo zinc-copper polymetallic deposit, Inner Mongolia. The samples were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and near infrared spectrum (NIR)to explore the mineral composition features of the fault gouges and their relationship with mineralization. The results are as follows: (1) The fault gouge samples contain the clay minerals which were formed in the low temperature alteration (such as montmorillonite, kaolinite, dickite, chlorite etc.), the alteration minerals in the medium temperature or high temperature hydrothermal environment (such as graphite, black mica, pyrophyllite, barite, serpentine, tremolite, actinolite etc.), and also the mineral compositions which were closely related to mineralization (such as copper-zinc oxide, copper-vanadium-chloride, azurite, bornite etc.). (2) The mineral compositions of the fault gouge from different depth are different. Shallow earth's surface is mainly consisted of the low metamorphic minerals, and deep underground is mainly consisted of the high metamorphic minerals. (3) The mineral composition, mineral genesis and law of development of evolution of fault gouges suggest that, they were formed in the ore and metallogenic tectonic hydrothermal activity period, and had experienced the supergene oxidation later. (4) Through the analysis of the mineral compositions and alteration mineral assemblage characteristics of the fault gouges we can speculate that, the ore deposit was formed in medium-high temperature hydrothermal environment which had experienced the process of silicide, kaolinite, chloritization, hotaru petrochemical and sericitization alteration. Therefore, the analysis of the mineral compositions and mineral assemblage characteristics of the fault gouges, not only have certain practical significance for prospecting, but also can provide important reference information to study the genesis of the deposit. © 2016, Peking University Press. All right reserved.


Cao J.J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Cao J.J.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources Exploration | Li Y.K.,Sun Yat Sen University | Jiang T.,Sun Yat Sen University | Hu G.,Sun Yat Sen University
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2015

Sources of sulfur dioxide, sulfates, and organic sulfur compounds, such as fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions, and animal feeding operations, have attracted considerable attention. In this study, we collected particles carried by geogas flows ascending through soil, geogas flows above the soil that had passed through the soil, and geogas flows ascending through deep faults of concealed sulfide ore deposits, and analysed them using transmission electron microscopy. Numerous crystalline and amorphous sulfur-containing particles or particle aggregations were found in the ascending geogas flows. In addition to S, the particles contained O, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Na, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, As, Ti, Sr, Ba, Si, etc. Such particles are usually a few to several hundred nanometres in diameter with either regular or irregular morphology. The sulfur-containing particles originated from deep-seated weathering or faulting products of concealed sulfide ore deposits. The particles suspended in the ascending geogas flow migrated through faults from deep-seated sources to the atmosphere. This is a previously unknown source of the atmospheric particles. This paper reports, for the first time, the emission of sulfur-containing particles into the atmosphere from concealed sulfide ore deposits. The climatic and ecological influences of these sulfur-containing particles and particle aggregations should be assessed. © 2015 Author(s).

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