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Sun Y.,Tsinghua University | Sun Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Sun Y.,CapitalBio corporation | Gao Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 15 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics | Year: 2014

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is characterized by difficulties in reading and spelling independent of intelligence, educational backgrounds and neurological injuries. Increasing evidences supported DD as a complex genetic disorder and identified four DD candidate genes namely DYX1C1, DCDC2, KIAA0319 and ROBO1. As such, DCDC2 and KIAA0319 are located in DYX2, one of the most studied DD susceptibility loci. However, association of these two genes with DD was inconclusive across different populations. Given the linguistic and genetic differences between Chinese and other populations, it is worthwhile to investigate association of DCDC2 and KIAA0319 with Chinese dyslexic children. Here, we selected 60 tag SNPs covering DCDC2 and KIAA0319 followed by high density genotyping in a large unrelated Chinese cohort with 502 dyslexic cases and 522 healthy controls. Several SNPs (Pmin=0.0192) of DCDC2 and KIAA0319 as well as a four-maker haplotype (Padjusted=0.0289, Odds Ratio (OR) =1.3400) of KIAA0319 showed nominal association with DD. However, none of these results survived Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Thus, the association of DCDC2 and KIAA0319 with DD in Chinese population should be further validated and their contribution to DD etiology and pathology should be interpreted with caution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Chen H.,Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine | Xu J.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Xu J.,CapitalBio corporation | Zhou Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 15 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2015

Background: Dyslexia is a polygenic speech and language disorder characterized by an unexpected difficulty in reading in children and adults despite normal intelligence and schooling. Increasing evidence reveals that different speech and language disorders could share common genetic factors. As previous study reported association of, and with stuttering, we investigated these genes with dyslexia through association analysis. Results: The study was carried out in an unrelated Chinese cohort with 502 dyslexic individuals and 522 healthy controls. In all, 21 Tag SNPs covering, and were subjected to genotyping. Association analysis was performed on all SNPs. Significant association of rs17031962 in and rs882294 in with developmental dyslexia was identified after FDR correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: Our results revealed that the stuttering risk genes and might also associate with developmental dyslexia in the Chinese population. © Chen et al. Source

Ge J.,Peking University | Peng G.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Peng G.,CAS Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology | Lyu B.,Peking University | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

How is language processed in the brain by native speakers of different languages? Is there one brain system for all languages or are different languages subserved by different brain systems? The first view emphasizes commonality, whereas the second emphasizes specificity. We investigated the cortical dynamics involved in processing two very diverse languages: a tonal language (Chinese) and a nontonal language (English). We used functional MRI and dynamic causal modeling analysis to compute and compare brain network models exhaustively with all possible connections among nodes of language regions in temporal and frontal cortex and found that the information flow from the posterior to anterior portions of the temporal cortex was commonly shared by Chinese and English speakers during speech comprehension, whereas the inferior frontal gyrus received neural signals from the left posterior portion of the temporal cortex in English speakers and from the bilateral anterior portion of the temporal cortex in Chinese speakers. Our results revealed that, although speech processing is largely carried out in the common left hemisphere classical language areas (Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and anterior temporal cortex, speech comprehension across different language groups depends on how these brain regions interact with each other. Moreover, the right anterior temporal cortex, which is crucial for tone processing, is equally important as its left homolog, the left anterior temporal cortex, in modulating the cortical dynamics in tone language comprehension. The current study pinpoints the importance of the bilateral anterior temporal cortex in language comprehension that is downplayed or even ignored by popular contemporary models of speech comprehension. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Source

Chen H.,Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine | Wang G.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Wang G.,CapitalBio corporation | Xia J.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 15 more authors.
Behavioral and Brain Functions | Year: 2014

Background: Dyslexia is a polygenic developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in reading and spelling despite normal intelligence, educational backgrounds and perception. Increasing evidences indicated that dyslexia may share similar genetic mechanisms with other speech and language disorders. We proposed that stuttering candidate genes, DRD2 and SLC6A3, might be associated with dyslexia. Methods and results: The study was conducted in an unrelated Chinese cohort with 502 dyslexic cases and 522 healthy controls. In total, 23 Tag SNPs covering the two genes were selected for genotyping through Tagger program. Association analysis was performed on each SNP alone and in haplotypes. One SNP markers in DRD2 showed significant association with developmental dyslexia.Conclusion: These findings indicate that polymorphism of DRD2 gene may be a risk factor of developmental dyslexia in the Chinese population. © 2014 Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Zhang L.,Shenzhen University | Zhang L.,National Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound | Zhang L.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Detection and Ultrasound Imaging | Kong H.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 11 more authors.
Cytometry Part A | Year: 2014

Current automation-assisted technologies for screening cervical cancer mainly rely on automated liquid-based cytology slides with proprietary stain. This is not a cost-efficient approach to be utilized in developing countries. In this article, we propose the first automation-assisted system to screen cervical cancer in manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) slides with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, which is inexpensive and more applicable in developing countries. This system consists of three main modules: image acquisition, cell segmentation, and cell classification. First, an autofocusing scheme is proposed to find the global maximum of the focus curve by iteratively comparing image qualities of specific locations. On the autofocused images, the multiway graph cut (GC) is performed globally on the a* channel enhanced image to obtain cytoplasm segmentation. The nuclei, especially abnormal nuclei, are robustly segmented by using GC adaptively and locally. Two concave-based approaches are integrated to split the touching nuclei. To classify the segmented cells, features are selected and preprocessed to improve the sensitivity, and contextual and cytoplasm information are introduced to improve the specificity. Experiments on 26 consecutive image stacks demonstrated that the dynamic autofocusing accuracy was 2.06 μm. On 21 cervical cell images with nonideal imaging condition and pathology, our segmentation method achieved a 93% accuracy for cytoplasm, and a 87.3% F-measure for nuclei, both outperformed state of the art works in terms of accuracy. Additional clinical trials showed that both the sensitivity (88.1%) and the specificity (100%) of our system are satisfyingly high. These results proved the feasibility of automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in MLBC slides with H&E stain, which is highly desirable in community health centers and small hospitals. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. Source

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