Guangdong Institute of Public Health

Guangzhou, China

Guangdong Institute of Public Health

Guangzhou, China
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Yu I.T.S.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhang Y.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | San Tam W.W.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Yan Q.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 8 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

We aimed to investigate the effects of ambient air pollutants on daily mortality in a relatively stable and homogeneous population in Guangzhou, China. Daily mortality, air pollution, and weather data between 2006 and 2009 were collected. The generalized additive model with poison regression was used to estimate the excessive risks (ERs) of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, and NO2) on total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. The effects of lag0-1 were the greatest for total non-accidental and cardiovascular deaths. The increments of 10μgm-3 in SO2, NO2, and PM10 were associated with ERs of 1.54% (95%CI: 1.03-2.06%), 1.42% (95%CI: 1.06-1.78%), and 1.26% (95%CI: 0.86-1.66%) respectively for total non-accidental deaths, and 2.28% (95%CI: 1.40-3.16%), 1.81% (95%CI: 1.20-2.41%), and 1.79% (95%CI: 1.11-2.47%) respectively for cardiovascular deaths. For persons who died from respiratory disease, however, the maximum effects occurred at lag0. The ERs for SO2, NO2, and PM10 were 1.36% (95%CI: 0.23-2.50%), 1.47% (95%CI: 0.66-2.29%) and 0.93% (95%CI: 0.03-1.83%), respectively. The effects of the three air pollutants on mortality were stronger in elderly and in women. The ERs in the present study were higher than those reported in Europe, the U.S., and most other Asian cities. Our findings show relatively higher ERs of daily mortality by ambient air pollutants in the center of Guangzhou, China, compared with estimates in other cities. Further studies with accurate exposure measurement among homogeneous population are needed to evaluate the precise magnitudes of the effects of the air pollutants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Lao X.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhang Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Sang Wong M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Xu Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 6 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: The metabolic syndrome has been shown to increase the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Little information exists on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome for southern Chinese. We therefore investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a southern Chinese population with 85 million residents. Methods. The Guangdong Nutrition and Health Survey 2002 is a cross-sectional survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of 85 million residents in Guangdong province located in southern China. Stratified multistage random sampling method was applied in this survey and a provincial representative sample of 6,468 residents aged 20 years or above was obtained in the present study. The participants received a full medical check-up including measurement of blood pressure, obesity indices, fasting lipids and glucose levels. Data describing socioeconomic and lifestyle factors was also collected through interview. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 7.30%, translating into a total of 4.0 million residents aged 20 years or above having the condition in this southern Chinese population. The urban population had higher prevalence of the syndrome than the rural population (10.57% vs 4.30%). Females had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than males (8.99% vs 5.27%). More than 60% of the adults had at least one component of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: Our results indicate that a large proportion of southern Chinese adults have the metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors. The metabolic syndrome has become an important public health problem in China. These findings emphasize the urgent need to develop population level strategies for the prevention, detection, and treatment of cardiovascular risk in China. © 2011 Lao et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Huang M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen Q.,Sun Yat Sen University | Xiao J.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health | Xiao J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2012

Published data on the association between CYP1A1 gene polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk are conflicting and heterogeneous. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed for heterozygous, homozygous, dominant model, recessive model and allele, respectively. A total of 15 case-control studies were identified, among which, 13 studies (1815 cases and 3501 controls) were eligible for CYP1A1 Ile 462Val and nine studies (2495 cases and 3553 controls) were eligible for CYP1A1 Msp1. Overall, Ile 462Val was significantly associated with ovarian cancer, with homozygous carriers (Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile: OR=2.64; 95% CI: 1.63-4.28) and recessive model (Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile and Ile/Val: OR=2.30; 95% CI: 1.45-3.65) being risk factors for ovarian cancer development. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were found for Caucasians (homozygous carriers: OR=4.91; 95% CI: 2.07-11.66; recessive model: OR=3.26; 95% CI: 1.41-7.50) and Asians (homozygous carriers: OR=3.06; 95% CI: 1.48-6.33; recessive model: OR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.40-5.41; Val allele: OR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.19-2.35). However, no significant associations were found between Msp1 and ovarian cancer in the overall analyses or the subgroup analyses by ethnicity. This meta-analysis denotes the importance for in-depth research regarding of gene-gene, gene-environment interactions, race-specific and histological subtypes specific to obtain a more conclusive response about the function of CYP1A1 in ovarian cancer. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Huang M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen Q.,Sun Yat Sen University | Xiao J.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health | Xiao J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Published data on the prognostic value of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression in cervical cancer are conflicting and heterogeneous. We performed a meta-analysis to more precisely estimate its prognostic significance. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the effects. Twenty-three studies with 1,477 cervical cancer patients were selected to evaluate the association between COX-2 and overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), response to chemoradiation (RC) and clinicopathological parameters. High COX-2 expression predicted poor OS (HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.54-4.18), DFS (HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.58-3.69) and RC (OR: 3.03, 95% CI: 1.97-4.64). Subgroup analyses showed that COX-2 overexpression was related significantly with poor OS in patients treated by chemoradiation or surgery, and in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. Besides, COX-2 overexpression was related significantly with poor DFS in chemoradiation subgroup. Furthermore, COX-2 overexpression was associated with poor RC in patients who received "FP" regimen or "P" regimen. Additionally, there were significant associations between COX-2 expression and all clinicopathological parameters except tumor grade. The pooled ORs (95% CI) were as follows: 1.49 (1.09-2.04) for age, 1.77 (1.22-2.56) for lymph node metastasis, 1.04 (0.74-1.47) for tumor grade, 1.71 (1.12-2.64) for tumor size, 2.38 (1.28-4.45) for FIGO stage, 3.96 (2.32-6.77) for histological type, 2.45(1.10-5.42) for parametrical involvement. This meta-analysis indicated that COX-2 overexpression might be an unfavorable prognostic and a chemoradiation resistance predictive factor for cervical cancer; it could potentially help to stratify patients further in clinical treatment. What's new? Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) is a common cytologic finding in cervical screening, with only 10-20% of LSIS patients showing significant histologic abnormalities and many of these cytologic changes regressing spontaneously without precancer. To date, however, no markers or molecular tests have adequately enhanced the positive predictive value of LSIL for clinically relevant cervical precancer. The authors showed that testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in women with LSIL is effective in identifying high-grade cervical lesions, thereby avoiding unnecessary referrals to colposcopy and potential over-treatment of non-progressive lesions, especially for women over 40. Copyright © 2012 UICC.


Ma W.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ma W.J.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health | Tang J.L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhang Y.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2012

Background Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Little information exists on the status of hypertension among southern Chinese. We therefore investigated the hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and associated factors in a southern Chinese population with 85 million residents. Methods Stratified multistage cluster sampling with probability proportional to size method was used in this survey. A representative sample of 13,889 residents aged 20 years or above with completed questionnaire and blood pressure (BP) measurement was obtained. BP was measured in accordance with the 1999 World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Information related to history of diagnosis and treatment of hypertension was collected through questionnaire. Results The prevalence of hypertension in this population was 20.5% (16.5%, 24.4%), which translated to 9.8 million adults suffering from hypertension in Guangdong province. The urban population had higher prevalence of hypertension than the rural population (25.1 vs. 16.1%). The prevalence of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in hypertensive patients living in urban regions were 42.8, 37.9, and 13.5%, respectively, which were higher than those in rural regions (the corresponding figures were 17.6, 10.4, and 3.4%, respectively). Nearly 50% urban adults and 80% rural adults did not measure their BP in the last 12 months. Frequency of BP measurement was associated with both awareness and treatment. Conclusions Hypertension was prevalent in southern China. The prevalence of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension is low. Urgent strategies are needed to improve prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension in this large Chinese population. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.


Huang C.,Queensland University of Technology | Huang C.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health | Ma W.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health | Stack S.,Stack Masula Pty Ltd.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings | Year: 2012

The transmission of bacteria is more likely to occur from wet skin than from dry skin; therefore, the proper drying of hands after washing should be an integral part of the hand hygiene process in health care. This article systematically reviews the research on the hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods. A literature search was conducted in April 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Search terms used were hand dryer and hand drying. The search was limited to articles published in English from January 1970 through March 2011. Twelve studies were included in the review. Hand-drying effectiveness includes the speed of drying, degree of dryness, effective removal of bacteria, and prevention of cross-contamination. This review found little agreement regarding the relative effectiveness of electric air dryers. However, most studies suggest that paper towels can dry hands efficiently, remove bacteria effectively, and cause less contamination of the washroom environment. From a hygiene viewpoint, paper towels are superior to electric air dryers. Paper towels should be recommended in locations where hygiene is paramount, such as hospitals and clinics. © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.


Huang M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Xiao J.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health | Zhao X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Liu C.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen Q.,Sun Yat Sen University
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Objective To investigate the association between CAPN 10 gene polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) susceptibility. Design Meta-analysis of published case-control studies of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CAPN 10 and PCOS susceptibility. Patients Women with PCOS. Measurements Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for heterozygous, homozygous, dominant model, recessive model and allele. Results A total of 11 studies were involved in the meta-analysis. UCSNP-63 was significantly associated with PCOS, with homozygous carriers (TT vs CC: OR = 0·64; 95% CI: 0·45-0·90) and recessive model (TT vs CC and CT: OR = 0·64; 95% CI: 0·45-0·90) being protective factors. In addition, UCSNP-19 was significantly associated with PCOS, with recessive model (ins/ins vs del/del and del/ins: OR = 0·72, 95% CI: 0·59-0·88) and insert allele (ins vs del: OR = 0·85, 95% CI: 0·76-0·96) being protective factors, while heterozygous carriers (del/ins vs del/del: OR = 1·56, 95% CI: 1·24-1·94) and deletion allele (del vs ins: OR = 1·18, 95% CI: 1·04-1·32) being risk factors. However, no significant associations were found between UCSNP-44, -43 and PCOS. Moreover, the results of the Rotterdam criteria subgroup analysis were similar with that of overall analysis. Conclusions This is the first report on the association between CAPN 10 UCSNP-63 and PCOS in genotype, with homozygous carriers and recessive model being protective factors. Additionally, insert allele and recessive model of UCSNP-19 are protective factors, while deletion allele and heterozygous genotype are risk factors for PCOS development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Luo Y.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2012

To evaluate the associations between malaria risk and meteorological factors. A negative binomial distribution regression analysis was built between the temperature, relative humidity, rainfall capacity and the monthly incidence of malaria, based on the temperature information provided by Guangdong Meteorological Department and the malaria incidence information provided by Guangdong Center of Disease Prevention and Control during year 1980 to 2004, adopting the time-series analysis method and by distributed lag non-linear model, in order to analyze the immediate factors. The number of monthly malaria cases in Guangdong province reached 4010 between year 1984 and 2004, while the monthly maximal temperature, minimal temperature, average temperature, relative humidity and average rainfall capacity was separately 26.3°C, 18.8°C, 21.9°C, 88.0% and 5.6 mm. The immediate effect of monthly maximal temperature on malaria incidence showed non-linear relationships. When the temperature reached 32.3°C, the risk was highest, the relative risk (RR) was 2.51 (95%CI: 1.99 - 3.16); when the relative humidity was 60.0%, the relative risk of malaria was highest as 1.19 (95%CI: 0.66 - 2.11) and then decreased gradually; and when the relative humidity was 86.6%, the risk of malaria was lowest at 0.51 (95%CI: 0.34 - 0.76). The risk of malaria increased while the rainfall capacity was 14.5 mm, the risk of malaria was the highest at 1.29 (95%CI: 0.87 - 1.93). Strongest delayed effects on malaria incidence was observed when the monthly maximal temperature reached 31.5°C at lagged 2 months, with the value of RR at 1.81 (95%CI: 1.02 - 3.22). When the monthly rainfall capacity was over 15.2 mm, the delayed effects was strong but short. When the monthly maximal temperature of 33.7°C, the excess risk of malaria was comparatively high, the excess risk was 92.2% (95%CI: 30.5% - 183.2%) when lagging one month. When the relative humidity was low, the delayed effect of malaria lasted for a long time, and the cumulative effect was huge. When the relative humidity reached 87.0%, the excess risk lagging 3 months was only -66.6% (95%CI: -86.4% - -17.7%). When the rainfall capacity was 15.5 mm, the cumulative effect on malaria reached the peak after 3 months, while the excess risk was 40.7% (95%CI: -30.0% - -182.6%); afterwards the cumulative effect gradually weakened. Positive and negative interaction effects were significant between malaria risk and maximal temperature and monthly rainfall capacity, and monthly rainfall capacity and relative humidity at lagged 2 months, respectively. High temperature and large rainfall capacity might be the risk factors of malaria in Guangdong province, and there was an obvious interaction between the two factors.


Zeng W.L.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2012

To estimate the effects of temperature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths in 4 cities-Kunming, Changsha, Guangzhou and Zhuhai, from southern part of China. Daily CVD deaths, meteorological and air pollution data were used to explore the association between temperature and mortality. Distributed lag non-linear model was fitted for each city to access the delayed and cumulative effects of low, median and high temperature on CVD deaths. Cold and hot effects of temperature on CVD deaths were then accessed, based on the linear threshold model. The city-specific exposure-response functions appeared to be non-linear. Temperatures that associated with the lowest mortality for Changsha, Kunming, Guangzhou and Zhuhai were 22.0°C, 20.0°C, 26.0°C, and 25.5°C. The greatest cumulative RRs (95%CI) for CVD deaths of low temperature during the delayed period of the study in the 4 cities were 1.858 (1.089 - 3.170), 1.537 (1.306 - 1.809), 2.121 (1.771 - 2.540) and 1.934 (1.469 - 2.548), while 1.100 (0.816 - 1.483), 1.061 (0.956 - 1.177), 1.134 (1.047 - 1.230) and 1.259 (1.104 - 1.436) for high temperatures in Changsha, Kunming, Guangzhou and Zhuhai respectively. The hot effect was greater than the cold effect on the current days. The hot effect was restricted to the first week, whereas the cold effect increased over the lag days, and then last for 3 - 4 weeks. The city-specific exposure-response functions appeared to be non-linear. Both high and cold temperatures were associated with increased CVD deaths, but the impact of low temperature was more notable. Cold effect was delayed by several days but last for a longer period than the hot effect did.


Zeng W.L.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2012

To explore the suitable temperature index to establish temperature-mortality model. The mortality and meteorological information of Guangzhou between year 2006 and 2010 were collected to explore the association between sendible temperature, heat index and deaths by adopting distributed lag non-linear model to fit the daily maximum, mean and minimum temperature with and without humidity. Q-Q plots based on the standardized residuals of each model were used to qualitatively access the goodness of fitting. The minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) and residual sum of squares (RSS) value were used to explore the most suitable temperature index for model establishment, and to further analyze the fittest temperature index for different diseases, ages and cold and hot effect. Guangzhou features a subtropical monsoon climate, with an annual average temperature at 22.9°C and daily average relative humidity of 71%. The standardized residuals of all models followed normal distribution. For all death, death from circulation system diseases, the 65-84 years old aging groups and cold effect models, the daily average temperature fit better, whose AIC (RSS) values were the smallest as 11 537 (1897), 9527 (1928), 10 595 (2018) and 11 523 (1899), respectively. However, for death from respiratory system disease, groups aging under 65 years old or over 85 years old and hot effect models, the daily average sendible temperature fit better, whose AIC (RSS) values were the smallest as 8265(1854), 675 (1739), 8550 (1871) and 11 687 (1938), respectively. In comparison with the model controlling both temperature and relative humidity, different diseases, aging groups and cold and hot effect models fitted by sendible temperature index showed smaller AIC (RSS) values. The relative risk (RR) value of the cold effect lagging 0 - 3 days fitting by daily maximal temperature was < 1, and the RR value of it fitting by daily minimum temperature was > 1.04. The RR value of the hot effect lagging 0 - 1 days fitting by daily maximal temperature was < 1.16, and the RR values of it fitting by daily minimum temperature and daily average temperature were > 1.16. There were no best temperature indicators for different diseases, ages and cold and hot effect. The model using sendible temperature index better fit the model including relative humidity as a covariable.

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