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Huang M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen Q.,Sun Yat Sen University | Xiao J.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health | Xiao J.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2012

Published data on the association between CYP1A1 gene polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk are conflicting and heterogeneous. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed for heterozygous, homozygous, dominant model, recessive model and allele, respectively. A total of 15 case-control studies were identified, among which, 13 studies (1815 cases and 3501 controls) were eligible for CYP1A1 Ile 462Val and nine studies (2495 cases and 3553 controls) were eligible for CYP1A1 Msp1. Overall, Ile 462Val was significantly associated with ovarian cancer, with homozygous carriers (Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile: OR=2.64; 95% CI: 1.63-4.28) and recessive model (Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile and Ile/Val: OR=2.30; 95% CI: 1.45-3.65) being risk factors for ovarian cancer development. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were found for Caucasians (homozygous carriers: OR=4.91; 95% CI: 2.07-11.66; recessive model: OR=3.26; 95% CI: 1.41-7.50) and Asians (homozygous carriers: OR=3.06; 95% CI: 1.48-6.33; recessive model: OR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.40-5.41; Val allele: OR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.19-2.35). However, no significant associations were found between Msp1 and ovarian cancer in the overall analyses or the subgroup analyses by ethnicity. This meta-analysis denotes the importance for in-depth research regarding of gene-gene, gene-environment interactions, race-specific and histological subtypes specific to obtain a more conclusive response about the function of CYP1A1 in ovarian cancer. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Huang M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen Q.,Sun Yat Sen University | Xiao J.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health | Xiao J.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Published data on the prognostic value of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression in cervical cancer are conflicting and heterogeneous. We performed a meta-analysis to more precisely estimate its prognostic significance. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the effects. Twenty-three studies with 1,477 cervical cancer patients were selected to evaluate the association between COX-2 and overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), response to chemoradiation (RC) and clinicopathological parameters. High COX-2 expression predicted poor OS (HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.54-4.18), DFS (HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.58-3.69) and RC (OR: 3.03, 95% CI: 1.97-4.64). Subgroup analyses showed that COX-2 overexpression was related significantly with poor OS in patients treated by chemoradiation or surgery, and in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. Besides, COX-2 overexpression was related significantly with poor DFS in chemoradiation subgroup. Furthermore, COX-2 overexpression was associated with poor RC in patients who received "FP" regimen or "P" regimen. Additionally, there were significant associations between COX-2 expression and all clinicopathological parameters except tumor grade. The pooled ORs (95% CI) were as follows: 1.49 (1.09-2.04) for age, 1.77 (1.22-2.56) for lymph node metastasis, 1.04 (0.74-1.47) for tumor grade, 1.71 (1.12-2.64) for tumor size, 2.38 (1.28-4.45) for FIGO stage, 3.96 (2.32-6.77) for histological type, 2.45(1.10-5.42) for parametrical involvement. This meta-analysis indicated that COX-2 overexpression might be an unfavorable prognostic and a chemoradiation resistance predictive factor for cervical cancer; it could potentially help to stratify patients further in clinical treatment. What's new? Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) is a common cytologic finding in cervical screening, with only 10-20% of LSIS patients showing significant histologic abnormalities and many of these cytologic changes regressing spontaneously without precancer. To date, however, no markers or molecular tests have adequately enhanced the positive predictive value of LSIL for clinically relevant cervical precancer. The authors showed that testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in women with LSIL is effective in identifying high-grade cervical lesions, thereby avoiding unnecessary referrals to colposcopy and potential over-treatment of non-progressive lesions, especially for women over 40. Copyright © 2012 UICC. Source

Yu I.T.S.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhang Y.H.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | San Tam W.W.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Yan Q.H.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 8 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

We aimed to investigate the effects of ambient air pollutants on daily mortality in a relatively stable and homogeneous population in Guangzhou, China. Daily mortality, air pollution, and weather data between 2006 and 2009 were collected. The generalized additive model with poison regression was used to estimate the excessive risks (ERs) of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, and NO2) on total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. The effects of lag0-1 were the greatest for total non-accidental and cardiovascular deaths. The increments of 10μgm-3 in SO2, NO2, and PM10 were associated with ERs of 1.54% (95%CI: 1.03-2.06%), 1.42% (95%CI: 1.06-1.78%), and 1.26% (95%CI: 0.86-1.66%) respectively for total non-accidental deaths, and 2.28% (95%CI: 1.40-3.16%), 1.81% (95%CI: 1.20-2.41%), and 1.79% (95%CI: 1.11-2.47%) respectively for cardiovascular deaths. For persons who died from respiratory disease, however, the maximum effects occurred at lag0. The ERs for SO2, NO2, and PM10 were 1.36% (95%CI: 0.23-2.50%), 1.47% (95%CI: 0.66-2.29%) and 0.93% (95%CI: 0.03-1.83%), respectively. The effects of the three air pollutants on mortality were stronger in elderly and in women. The ERs in the present study were higher than those reported in Europe, the U.S., and most other Asian cities. Our findings show relatively higher ERs of daily mortality by ambient air pollutants in the center of Guangzhou, China, compared with estimates in other cities. Further studies with accurate exposure measurement among homogeneous population are needed to evaluate the precise magnitudes of the effects of the air pollutants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lao X.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhang Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Sang Wong M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Xu Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 6 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: The metabolic syndrome has been shown to increase the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Little information exists on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome for southern Chinese. We therefore investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a southern Chinese population with 85 million residents. Methods. The Guangdong Nutrition and Health Survey 2002 is a cross-sectional survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of 85 million residents in Guangdong province located in southern China. Stratified multistage random sampling method was applied in this survey and a provincial representative sample of 6,468 residents aged 20 years or above was obtained in the present study. The participants received a full medical check-up including measurement of blood pressure, obesity indices, fasting lipids and glucose levels. Data describing socioeconomic and lifestyle factors was also collected through interview. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 7.30%, translating into a total of 4.0 million residents aged 20 years or above having the condition in this southern Chinese population. The urban population had higher prevalence of the syndrome than the rural population (10.57% vs 4.30%). Females had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than males (8.99% vs 5.27%). More than 60% of the adults had at least one component of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: Our results indicate that a large proportion of southern Chinese adults have the metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors. The metabolic syndrome has become an important public health problem in China. These findings emphasize the urgent need to develop population level strategies for the prevention, detection, and treatment of cardiovascular risk in China. © 2011 Lao et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Luo Y.,Guangdong Institute of Public Health
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2012

To evaluate the associations between malaria risk and meteorological factors. A negative binomial distribution regression analysis was built between the temperature, relative humidity, rainfall capacity and the monthly incidence of malaria, based on the temperature information provided by Guangdong Meteorological Department and the malaria incidence information provided by Guangdong Center of Disease Prevention and Control during year 1980 to 2004, adopting the time-series analysis method and by distributed lag non-linear model, in order to analyze the immediate factors. The number of monthly malaria cases in Guangdong province reached 4010 between year 1984 and 2004, while the monthly maximal temperature, minimal temperature, average temperature, relative humidity and average rainfall capacity was separately 26.3°C, 18.8°C, 21.9°C, 88.0% and 5.6 mm. The immediate effect of monthly maximal temperature on malaria incidence showed non-linear relationships. When the temperature reached 32.3°C, the risk was highest, the relative risk (RR) was 2.51 (95%CI: 1.99 - 3.16); when the relative humidity was 60.0%, the relative risk of malaria was highest as 1.19 (95%CI: 0.66 - 2.11) and then decreased gradually; and when the relative humidity was 86.6%, the risk of malaria was lowest at 0.51 (95%CI: 0.34 - 0.76). The risk of malaria increased while the rainfall capacity was 14.5 mm, the risk of malaria was the highest at 1.29 (95%CI: 0.87 - 1.93). Strongest delayed effects on malaria incidence was observed when the monthly maximal temperature reached 31.5°C at lagged 2 months, with the value of RR at 1.81 (95%CI: 1.02 - 3.22). When the monthly rainfall capacity was over 15.2 mm, the delayed effects was strong but short. When the monthly maximal temperature of 33.7°C, the excess risk of malaria was comparatively high, the excess risk was 92.2% (95%CI: 30.5% - 183.2%) when lagging one month. When the relative humidity was low, the delayed effect of malaria lasted for a long time, and the cumulative effect was huge. When the relative humidity reached 87.0%, the excess risk lagging 3 months was only -66.6% (95%CI: -86.4% - -17.7%). When the rainfall capacity was 15.5 mm, the cumulative effect on malaria reached the peak after 3 months, while the excess risk was 40.7% (95%CI: -30.0% - -182.6%); afterwards the cumulative effect gradually weakened. Positive and negative interaction effects were significant between malaria risk and maximal temperature and monthly rainfall capacity, and monthly rainfall capacity and relative humidity at lagged 2 months, respectively. High temperature and large rainfall capacity might be the risk factors of malaria in Guangdong province, and there was an obvious interaction between the two factors. Source

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