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Gong S.-P.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Shi H.-T.,Hainan Normal University | Jiang A.-W.,Guangxi University | Fong J.J.,University of Hong Kong | And 2 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2017

China ranks first among Northern hemisphere countries for species richness, but approximately 43% of its species are threatened [1], with harvesting being the major threat to vertebrates [2]. To protect its biodiversity, China has established about 2,700 nature reserves covering 1.46 million km2 ( about 15% of China's territory, a percentage higher than the world average [3]). With increasing habitat destruction and harvesting, nature reserves are the final refugia for threatened species. However, many Chinese nature reserves are poorly managed, leaving them vulnerable to poaching and other human encroachment [4]. In this study, we conducted a 12-year (2002–2013) case study on turtles to illustrate the damaging impacts China's nature reserves have on wildlife conservation. We discovered that poaching occurred in all of the 56 reserves surveyed, resulting in dramatically reduced turtle populations. In a majority of the reserves, the reserve staff themselves were involved in poaching. Although nature reserves were created to protect plants and animals, they have become part of the problem due to weak enforcement of rules. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Wei Y.,Hainan Normal University | Wei Y.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Gong S.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Gong S.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization | And 2 more authors.
Herpetological Journal | Year: 2016

Turtles are an excellent group for understanding the theory of sexual selection, sexual dimorphism and the evolution of courtship behaviour. Asia has a rich diversity of turtle species, but quantitative analysis of courtship behaviour has only been conducted on a single species. This study quantitatively analysed courtship and mating behaviours of captive Platysternon megacephalum to serve as a basis for future comparisons with other freshwater turtles. A total of 259 courtship behaviour sequences stemming from 66 pairings between 12 males and 24 females were analysed. Seven (approaching, sniffing, chasing, resting, mounting, subduing female, copulating) and three mutually exclusive motor patterns (fleeing, mating resistance, mating acceptance) were performed by males and females, respectively. The temporal sequences of courtship and mating behaviours were analysed using Chi-square tests and Kappa analyses, from which a flow diagram was constructed. Male courtship display patterns involved tactile, visual and olfactory cues for conspecific and sexual recognition. In response, females may have emitted olfactory cues regarding their sex and reproductive status. Male P. megacephalum exhibited biting, but no head movement or foreclaw display in courtship, which differs from other freshwater turtles. This study provides the first record of male biting during courtship behaviour in an Asian turtle species. Recommendations for captive breeding of the endangered species P. megacephalum are presented. © 2016, British Herpetological Society. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Sichuan University, Zhejiang University, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: PeerJ | Year: 2016

This study examines the relative importance of six variables: area, the mid-domain effect, temperature, precipitation, productivity, and habitat heterogeneity on elevational patterns of species richness for breeding birds along a central Himalaya gradient in the Gyirong Valley, the longest of five canyons in the Mount Qomolangma National Nature Reserve. We conducted field surveys in each of twelve elevational bands of 300 m between 1,800 and 5,400 m asl four times throughout the entire wet season. A total of 169 breeding bird species were recorded and most of the species (74%) were small-ranged. The species richness patterns of overall, large-ranged and small-ranged birds were all hump-shaped, but with peaks at different elevations. Large-ranged species and small-ranged species contributed equally to the overall richness pattern. Based on the bivariate and multiple regression analyses, area and precipitation were not crucial factors in determining the species richness along this gradient. The mid-domain effect played an important role in shaping the richness pattern of large-ranged species. Temperature was negatively correlated with overall and large-ranged species but positively correlated with small-ranged species. Productivity was a strong explanatory factor among all the bird groups, and habitat heterogeneity played an important role in shaping the elevational richness patterns of overall and small-ranged species. Our results highlight the need to conserve primary forest and intact habitat in this area. Furthermore, we need to increase conservation efforts in this montane biodiversity hotspot in light of increasing anthropogenic activities and land use pressure.

Lu X.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Han S.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma dendrolimi. Forty-four microsatellites were isolated from a (TCG)8-enriched genomic library and characterised. Twenty-six of these loci were polymorphic and could be used for evaluation of the genetic variation of T. dendrolimi. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Liu G.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Qiu X.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Cao L.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Zhang Y.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the sensitive method to quantify the expression levels of target genes on the basis of endogenous control. An appropriate reference gene set for normalization is essential for reliable results. The ghost moth, Thitarodes armoricanus, a host species of a medicinal fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, is an economically important member of the Lepidoptera. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism of adaptation of this species to its high-altitude environment and host immune response to O. sinensis infection and RT-qPCR is commonly used in these studies to decipher the genetic basis of physiological functions. However, a thorough assessment of candidate reference genes in the genus Thitarodes is lacking. Here, the expression levels of eight candidate reference genes (ACT, EF, EIF4A, GAPDH, G6PDH, RPL13A, TUB and 18S) in T. armoricanus at different developmental stages and in different body parts of the seventh instar larvae were analyzed, along with larvae kept under low temperatures, larvae exposed to two fungal infections and larvae fed different diets. Three established software programs-Bestkeeper, geNorm and NormFinder-were employed to calculate variation among the treatments. The results revealed that the bestsuited reference genes differed across the treatments, with EF, EIF4A and GAPDH found to be the best suited for the different developmental stages and larvae body parts; EF, EIF4A and RPL13A found to be the best suited for low-temperature challenge; and EF, EIF4A and TUB found to be the best suited for the fungal infections and dietary treatments. This study thus further contributes to the establishment of an accurate method for normalizing RTqPCR results for T. armoricanus and serves as a reference for gene expression studies of related insect species. © 2016 Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Zeng W.-H.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Li Z.-Q.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Liu B.-R.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Li Q.-J.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Zhong J.-H.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2016

The lower termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is an important model species for studying the dual cellulolytic system of termites. The effect of rearing temperature on the interaction between the intestinal symbiont community and the host in lignocelluloses digestion was investigated by assaying the activity and gene expression of cellulase, and monitoring the population size of intestinal protozoan community, which was followed by rearing C. formosanus at a temperature gradient (15-37 °C) for 3 d. The results showed that the rearing temperature of C. formosanus had a much greater impact on cellulase activity and gene transcription of the intestinal symbiont than on the host. The transcriptional variations of endogenous and symbiotic cellulase genes presented mutual complement and restrained when C. formosanus living in high temperature environment (32 and 37 °C). Additionally, the optimum survival temperature of Pseudotrichonympha grassii Koidzumi (22 °C) was found lower than that of Holomastigotoides mirabile Koidzumi (28 °C) and Spirotrichonympha leidyi Koidzumi (28 °C).The optimum rearing temperature for cellulase activity and protozoan survival of C. formosanus was found much lower than its optimum temperature for feeding. These findings provide a novel glimpse into host-symbiotic mutualism in lower termite digestion. © 2016 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society..

PubMed | Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources and Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Type: | Journal: PeerJ | Year: 2016

The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants.

PubMed | Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources
Type: | Journal: Immunogenetics | Year: 2016

Previous studies have shown that bats are reservoirs of a large number of viruses, many of which cause illness and mortality in humans and other animals. However, these bat-associated pathogens cause little, if any, clinicopathology in bats. This long-term adaptation should be reflected somewhat in the immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first line of immune defense against pathogens in vertebrates. Therefore, this study focuses on the selection of TLRs involved in virus recognition. The coding sequences of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 were sequenced in ten bats. The selection pressure acting on each gene was also detected using branch- and site-specific methods. The results showed that the ancestor of bats and certain other bat sublineages evolved under positive selection for TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9. The highest proportion of positive selection occurred in TLR9, followed by TLR8 and TLR7. All of the positively selected sites were located in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which implied their important roles in pathogen recognition. However, TLR3 evolved under negative selection. Our results are not in line with previous studies which identified more positively selected sites in TLR8 in mammalian species. In this study, the most positively selected sites were found in TLR9. This study encompassed more species that were considered natural reservoirs of viruses. The positive selection for TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 might contribute to the adaptation of pathogen-host interaction in bats, especially in bat TLR9.

PubMed | Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources and CAS South China Botanical Garden
Type: | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2016

Combinations of entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema longicaudum X-7 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 with chlorantraniliprole, diflubenzuron, and imidacloprid insecticides at different rates for the control of the white grub, Holotrichia oblita Faldermann (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were evaluated both in the laboratory and in peanut fields. In the laboratory, the combinations had a synergistic or additive effect on the second-instar larvae of H. oblita and caused faster mortality than one nematode species or insecticide alone. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora-chlorantraniliprole and H. bacteriophora-imidacloprid showed synergistic effects on the larvae. When higher concentrations of the insecticides were combined with nematodes, the stronger synergistic effects were found. In peanut fields, S. longicaudum-imidacloprid, H. bacteriophora-imidacloprid, or H. bacteriophora-chlorantraniliprole also showed synergistic effects against the larvae. The three nematode-insecticide combinations produced similar percentage reductions of the grub larvae and less percentages of injured legumes, compared with the chlorpyrifos treatment. Cost-benefit analysis showed that H. bacteriophora 5.0 10

PubMed | Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Xinxiang Medical University and Harvard University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society | Year: 2016

Epidemiological studies and meta-analyses report a strong relationship between chronic pain and abnormalities in glucose metabolism, but the exact relationship between chronic pain and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unknown. Using a model of neuropathic thermal and tactile hypersensitivity induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) and Zucker Lean (ZL) littermates, we compared the recovery period of hypersensitivity and the progression of T2D and studied the possible involvement of insulin receptors (IRs) in the comorbidity of these 2 conditions. We found that the nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulation in naive ZDF rats were lower than in ZL littermates at 6weeks of age. Although ZDF and ZL rats developed thermal and tactile hypersensitivity after CCI, it took a longer time nociceptive sensitivity to be restored in ZDF rats. Nerve injury accelerated the progression of T2D in ZDF rats, shown by an earlier onset of hyperglycemia, more severe hyperinsulinemia, and a higher concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin Alc 6weeks after CCI, compared with those in naive ZDF and ZL rats. IR-immunoreactive cells were located across the central nervous system and skeletal muscles. In the central nervous system, IR coexpressed with a neuronal marker (neuronal nuclei) but not a glial marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein). There was a low level of IR expression in skeletal muscles of naive ZDF rats. In contrast, CCI reduced the IR expression in skeletal muscles as well as the ipsilateral spinal cord, primarily in the dorsal horn. In conclusion, our data suggest that the relationship between insulin resistance and chronic pain in ZDF rats is bidirectional and an impaired IR signaling system might be implicated in this reciprocal relationship.Nerve injuries in genetically susceptible individuals might accelerate the development of insulin resistance as in T2D. A downregulated expression of IRs in the skeletal muscle innervated by the injured nerve is one of the underlying mechanisms.

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