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Zhai X.,Xinxiang Medical University | Zhai X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun C.,Xinxiang Medical University | Rong P.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pain | Year: 2016

Epidemiological studies and meta-analyses report a strong relationship between chronic pain and abnormalities in glucose metabolism, but the exact relationship between chronic pain and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unknown. Using a model of neuropathic thermal and tactile hypersensitivity induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) and Zucker Lean (ZL) littermates, we compared the recovery period of hypersensitivity and the progression of T2D and studied the possible involvement of insulin receptors (IRs) in the comorbidity of these 2 conditions. We found that the nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulation in naive ZDF rats were lower than in ZL littermates at 6 weeks of age. Although ZDF and ZL rats developed thermal and tactile hypersensitivity after CCI, it took a longer time nociceptive sensitivity to be restored in ZDF rats. Nerve injury accelerated the progression of T2D in ZDF rats, shown by an earlier onset of hyperglycemia, more severe hyperinsulinemia, and a higher concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin Alc 6 weeks after CCI, compared with those in naive ZDF and ZL rats. IR-immunoreactive cells were located across the central nervous system and skeletal muscles. In the central nervous system, IR coexpressed with a neuronal marker (neuronal nuclei) but not a glial marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein). There was a low level of IR expression in skeletal muscles of naive ZDF rats. In contrast, CCI reduced the IR expression in skeletal muscles as well as the ipsilateral spinal cord, primarily in the dorsal horn. In conclusion, our data suggest that the relationship between insulin resistance and chronic pain in ZDF rats is bidirectional and an impaired IR signaling system might be implicated in this reciprocal relationship. Perspective Nerve injuries in genetically susceptible individuals might accelerate the development of insulin resistance as in T2D. A downregulated expression of IRs in the skeletal muscle innervated by the injured nerve is one of the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 American Pain Society. Source

Yan X.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Waweru B.,Rwanda Agriculture Board | Qiu X.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Hategekimana A.,Rwanda Agriculture Board | And 6 more authors.
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Five field surveys for indigenous entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were conducted in 22 semi-natural and 17 small-holder farming habitats across 16 districts of different altitudes in the northern, eastern, southern and Kigali city provinces of Rwanda. In 2014, 216 mixed soil samples were collected and subsamples thereof baited with Galleria mellonella or Tenebrio molitor larvae. Five samples from five locations and habitats were positive for nematodes (2.8%). Nine nematode species/strains were isolated and five successfully maintained. DNA sequence comparisons and morphological examinations revealed Steinernema carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as well as two steinernematids and one heterorhabditid with no species designation. The isolates (strains) were named Steinernema sp. RW14-M-C2a-3, Steinernema sp. RW14-M-C2b-1, Steinernema carpocapsae RW14-G-R3a-2, H. bacteriophora RW14-N-C4a and Heterorhabditis sp. RW14-K-Ca. These are the first records of naturally occurring EPNs in Rwanda. It is also the first record of S. carpocapsae from Africa. Finding H. bacteriophora from tropical rather than temperate Africa was surprising. The found nematodes will serve as the basis for efficacy screening, and for mass production in a biocontrol agent factory at Rubona Research Centre of the Rwanda Agriculture Board with the ultimate aim of delivering effective, safe and environmentally benign pest control for soil-inhabiting pests. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Source

Lu X.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Han S.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma dendrolimi. Forty-four microsatellites were isolated from a (TCG)8-enriched genomic library and characterised. Twenty-six of these loci were polymorphic and could be used for evaluation of the genetic variation of T. dendrolimi. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Source

Wei Y.,Hainan Normal University | Wei Y.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Gong S.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Gong S.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization | And 2 more authors.
Herpetological Journal | Year: 2016

Turtles are an excellent group for understanding the theory of sexual selection, sexual dimorphism and the evolution of courtship behaviour. Asia has a rich diversity of turtle species, but quantitative analysis of courtship behaviour has only been conducted on a single species. This study quantitatively analysed courtship and mating behaviours of captive Platysternon megacephalum to serve as a basis for future comparisons with other freshwater turtles. A total of 259 courtship behaviour sequences stemming from 66 pairings between 12 males and 24 females were analysed. Seven (approaching, sniffing, chasing, resting, mounting, subduing female, copulating) and three mutually exclusive motor patterns (fleeing, mating resistance, mating acceptance) were performed by males and females, respectively. The temporal sequences of courtship and mating behaviours were analysed using Chi-square tests and Kappa analyses, from which a flow diagram was constructed. Male courtship display patterns involved tactile, visual and olfactory cues for conspecific and sexual recognition. In response, females may have emitted olfactory cues regarding their sex and reproductive status. Male P. megacephalum exhibited biting, but no head movement or foreclaw display in courtship, which differs from other freshwater turtles. This study provides the first record of male biting during courtship behaviour in an Asian turtle species. Recommendations for captive breeding of the endangered species P. megacephalum are presented. © 2016, British Herpetological Society. All rights reserved. Source

Zeng W.-H.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Li Z.-Q.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Liu B.-R.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Li Q.-J.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources | Zhong J.-H.,Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2016

The lower termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is an important model species for studying the dual cellulolytic system of termites. The effect of rearing temperature on the interaction between the intestinal symbiont community and the host in lignocelluloses digestion was investigated by assaying the activity and gene expression of cellulase, and monitoring the population size of intestinal protozoan community, which was followed by rearing C. formosanus at a temperature gradient (15-37 °C) for 3 d. The results showed that the rearing temperature of C. formosanus had a much greater impact on cellulase activity and gene transcription of the intestinal symbiont than on the host. The transcriptional variations of endogenous and symbiotic cellulase genes presented mutual complement and restrained when C. formosanus living in high temperature environment (32 and 37 °C). Additionally, the optimum survival temperature of Pseudotrichonympha grassii Koidzumi (22 °C) was found lower than that of Holomastigotoides mirabile Koidzumi (28 °C) and Spirotrichonympha leidyi Koidzumi (28 °C).The optimum rearing temperature for cellulase activity and protozoan survival of C. formosanus was found much lower than its optimum temperature for feeding. These findings provide a novel glimpse into host-symbiotic mutualism in lower termite digestion. © 2016 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.. Source

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