GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals

Guangzhou, China

GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals

Guangzhou, China
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Xue C.,GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals | Xue C.,Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals in GuangDong | Huang R.,GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals | Huang R.,Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals in GuangDong | And 3 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2010

Since genome size and the number of duplicate genes observed in genomes increase from haploid to diploid organisms, diploidy might provide more evolutionary probabilities through gene duplication. It is still unclear how diploidy promotes genomic evolution in detail. In this study, we explored the evolution of segmental gene duplication in haploid and diploid populations by analytical and simulation approaches. Results show that (1) under the double null recessive (DNR) selective model, given the same recombination rate, the evolutionary trajectories and consequences are very similar between the same-size gene-pool haploid vs. diploid populations; (2) recombination enlarges the probability of preservation of duplicate genes in either haploid or diploid large populations, and haplo-insufficiency reinforces this effect; and (3) the loss of duplicate genes at the ancestor locus is limited under recombination while under complete linkage the loss of duplicate genes is always random at the ancestor and newly duplicated loci. Therefore, we propose a model to explain the advantage of diploidy: diploidy might facilitate the increase of recombination rate, especially under sexual reproduction; more duplicate genes are preserved under more recombination by originalization (by which duplicate genes are preserved intact at a special quasi-mutation-selection balance under the DNR or haplo-insufficient selective model), so genome sizes and the number of duplicate genes in diploid organisms become larger. Additionally, it is suggested that small genomic rearrangements due to the random loss of duplicate genes might be limited under recombination. Copyright © 2010 by the Genetics Society of America.


Xue C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Xue C.,GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals | Fu Y.-X.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Fu Y.-X.,Yunnan University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Lower energy expenditure (EE) for physical activity was observed in Africans than in Europeans, which might contribute to the higher prevalence of obesity and more athletic capability in Africans. But it is still unclear why EE is lower among African populations. In this study we tried to explore the genetic mechanism underlying lower EE in Africans. We screened 231 common variants with possibly harmful impact on 182 genes in the catabolic process. The genetic risk, including the total number of mutations and the sum of harmful probabilities, was calculated and analyzed for the screened variants at a population level. Results of the genetic risk among human groups showed that most Africans (3 out of 4 groups) had a significantly smaller genetic risk in the catabolic process than Europeans and Asians, which might result in higher efficiency of generating energy among Africans. In sport competitions, athletes need massive amounts of energy expenditure in a short period of time, so higher efficiency of energy generation might help make African-descendent athletes more powerful. On the other hand, higher efficiency of generating energy might also result in consuming smaller volumes of body mass. As a result, Africans might be more vulnerable to obesity compared to the other races when under the same or similar conditions. Therefore, the smaller genetic risk in the catabolic process might be at the core of understanding lower EE, more athletic capability and higher prevalence of obesity in Africans. © 2011 Xue et al.


Xue C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Xue C.,GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals | Liu X.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Gong Y.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: The disorders in metabolism of energy substances are usually related to some diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and cancer, etc. However, the genetic background for these disorders has not been well understood. In this study, we explored the genetic risk differences among human populations in metabolism (catabolism and biosynthesis) of energy substances, including lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids.Results: Two genotype datasets (Hapmap and 1000 Genome) were used for this study. The genetic risks of protein functional changing variants (PFCVs) on genes involved in lipid, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism were calculated using two genetic risk indices: the total number of PFCVs (Num) and the total possibly harmful score of PFCVs (R). Observations in these two genotype datasets consistently showed that Africans had lower genetic risk in lipid metabolism (both catabolic and biosynthetic processes) compared to Europeans. However this relationship was not observed in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism.Conclusions: Our results suggested that Africans had higher efficiency of utilizing lipids as energy substances than Europeans. In other words, lipids might be more preferred as energy substances in Africans than in Europeans. © 2013 Xue et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Xue C.,GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals | Xue C.,Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals in GuangDong | Huang R.,GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals | Huang R.,Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals in GuangDong | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: Recently originalization was proposed to be an effective way of duplicate-gene preservation, in which recombination provokes the high frequency of original (or wild-type) allele on both duplicated loci. Because the high frequency of wild-type allele might drive the arising and accumulating of advantageous mutation, it is hypothesized that recombination might enlarge the probability of neofunctionalization (Pneo) of duplicate genes. In this article this hypothesis has been tested theoretically.Results: Results show that through originalization recombination might not only shorten mean time to neofunctionalizaiton, but also enlarge Pneo.Conclusions: Therefore, recombination might facilitate neofunctionalization via originalization. Several extensive applications of these results on genomic evolution have been discussed: 1. Time to nonfunctionalization can be much longer than a few million generations expected before; 2. Homogenization on duplicated loci results from not only gene conversion, but also originalization; 3. Although the rate of advantageous mutation is much small compared with that of degenerative mutation, Pneocannot be expected to be small. © 2010 Xue et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals
Type: | Journal: BMC genetics | Year: 2010

Recently originalization was proposed to be an effective way of duplicate-gene preservation, in which recombination provokes the high frequency of original (or wild-type) allele on both duplicated loci. Because the high frequency of wild-type allele might drive the arising and accumulating of advantageous mutation, it is hypothesized that recombination might enlarge the probability of neofunctionalization (Pneo) of duplicate genes. In this article this hypothesis has been tested theoretically.Results show that through originalization recombination might not only shorten mean time to neofunctionalizaiton, but also enlarge Pneo.Therefore, recombination might facilitate neofunctionalization via originalization. Several extensive applications of these results on genomic evolution have been discussed: 1. Time to nonfunctionalization can be much longer than a few million generations expected before; 2. Homogenization on duplicated loci results from not only gene conversion, but also originalization; 3. Although the rate of advantageous mutation is much small compared with that of degenerative mutation, Pneo cannot be expected to be small.

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