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Zhang X.-L.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Zhang X.-L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Luo X.-J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Liu J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Purpose: Birds have been used successfully for biomonitoring of the levels and effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environments; however, there is exceedingly little data on organochlorinated pesticide (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues in bird inhabiting in China. In the present study, we detected the concentrations of PCBs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in muscle, liver and kidney of birds that inhabit in an e-waste recycling site. Associated with the stable isotope ratio (δ15N), we investigated the effect of trophic level on the body burdens of persistent contaminants in birds. The tissue distributions of contaminants in these birds were examined, and a preliminary risk assessment was also conducted. Materials and methods: Specimens from eight bird species were collected from Qingyuan County, Guangdong Province, South China. Pectoral muscle, liver and kidney tissues were Soxhlet-extracted and finally dissolved in isooctane. Both PCBs and OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The subsamples for nitrogen stable isotope analysis were lyophilized, ground and analyzed by a flash EA 112 series elemental analyzer interfaced with an isotope ration mass spectrometer. Results and discussion: PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations among all target compounds, and a preliminary risk assessment suggested that adverse effects might occur in some birds for its high level. Generally, the concentrations of pollutants in liver and kidney were higher than those in muscle, which was mainly driven by passive diffusion to the 'lipid-compartment'. Significant differences in level of contaminants were obtained among species due to the varieties in dietary composition and habitat. An increasing trend was obtained between concentrations of PCBs and DDTs with trophic levels; however, HCHs exhibited the same level among species. Recommendations and perspectives: Because of the e-waste recycling activities, the study area has been heavily polluted by PCBs. Studies on the species-specific hazard assessment associated with exposure to PCBs are urgently needed in the study of birds in the area. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Chen S.-J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Tian M.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Tian M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Pollution

Air and foliage samples (Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were collected from e-waste and reference sites in South China and analyzed for Dechlorane Plus (DP) and two dechlorinated DPs. DP concentrations in the air were 13.1-1794 pg/m3 for the e-waste site and 0.47-35.7 pg/m 3 for the reference site, suggesting the recycling of e-waste is an important source of DP to the environment. Plant DP, with concentrations of 0.45-51.9 ng/g dry weight at the e-waste site and 0.09-2.46 ng/g at the reference site, exhibited temporal patterns similar to the air DP except for pine needle at the reference site. The air-plant exchange of DP could be described with the two-compartment model. Anti-Cl11 DP was measured in most air and plant samples from the e-waste site. The ratios of anti-Cl 11 DP to anti-DP in the air and plants may indicate the preferential uptake of dechlorinated DP by plant compared with DP. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Zheng J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Luo X.-J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Yuan J.-G.,Sun Yat Sen University | He L.-Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Heavy metals were measured in hair from occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed populations in an e-waste recycling area and from residents from a control rural town. The levels of five heavy metals were in the following order of Zn > Pb, Cu > Cd > Ni, with the highest levels found in the occupationally exposed workers. The levels of Cd, Pb, and Cu were significantly higher in residents from the e-waste recycling area than in the control area. Elevated Cd, Pb, and Cu contents along with significant positive correlations between them in hair from the e-waste recycling area indicated that these metals were likely to have originated from the e-waste recycling activities. The similarity in heavy metal pattern between children and occupationally exposed workers indicated that children are particularly vulnerable to heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities. The increased Cu exposure might be a benefit for the insufficient intake of Cu in the studied area. However, the elevated hair Cd and Pb levels implied that the residents in the e-waste area might be at high risk of toxic metal, especially for children and occupationally exposed workers. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Chen S.-J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Tian M.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Tian M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zheng J.,South China Institute of Environmental Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology

E-waste that contains polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is moved across national boundaries, often from industrialized countries in the northern hemisphere, where the items were formerly used, to subtropical and tropical regions in southeastern Asia and Africa. As a result, there is a high likelihood that PCBs will be released into the environment from a primary source due to the elevated temperatures encountered in these low-latitude regions. In the present study, PCBs and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of chiral PCBs (PCB 84, 95, 132, 136, 149, and 183) were analyzed in air, eucalyptus leaves, pine needles, and soil at an e-waste site and a rural site in southern China the concentrations of PCBs at the e-waste site ranged from 7825 to 76330 pg/m 3, 27.5 to 1993 ng/g, and 24.2 to 12045 ng/g in the air (gas plus particle), plant leaves, and soils, respectively the atmospheric PCB composition profiles in the present study indicated relatively high abundances of penta- and hexa-PCBs, which were different from those previously observed in the air across China the Clausius-Clapeyron regression analysis indicated that evaporation from local contaminated surfaces constitutes a primary emission source of PCBs in the air at the e-waste site the chiral signatures of PCBs in the air at the e-waste site were essentially racemic (mean EFs = (0.484 ± 0.022)-(0.499 ± 0.004) in the gaseous phase) except for PCB 84 (0.420 ± 0.050), indicating that racemic sources dominate the PCB emission in the air. PCB chiral signatures in the soils ((0.422 ± 0.038)-(0.515 ± 0.016)) were similar to those in the air except for PCB 95. However, the chiral PCBs in the plants (especially the eucalyptus leaves) had significantly nonracemic residues ((0.368 ± 0.075)-(0.561 ± 0.045)) compared to those in the air and soil. This finding suggests that enantioselective biotransformation of these atropisomeric PCBs was very likely to occur in the plant leaves, possibly due to metabolism by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the enantioselective metabolism of chiral PCBs in plants under field conditions. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Tian M.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Tian M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chen S.-J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Wang J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were measured in eucalyptus leaves and pine needles as well as the leaf surface particles (LSPs) of the two species at an e-waste site in southern China in 2007-2008. The monthly concentrations of total BFRs in the eucalyptus leaves and pine needles were in range of 30.6-154 and 15.1-236 ng/g dry weight, respectively, and relatively higher concentrations were observed in winter and spring. Correlation analysis of BFR concentrations and comparison of PBDE compositions between the plants and LSPs, air (gaseous and particle-bound phases), and ambient variables were conducted. The results revealed that BFRs in the plants, especially for less brominated BFRs, showed positive relationships with BFRs in the LSPs and negative relationships with the gaseous BFRs and ambient temperature. The PBDE profiles in the plants were similar to the gaseous profile for low brominated BDEs (di- through hexa-BDEs) and to the LSP profiles for highly brominated BDEs (hepta- through deca-BDEs). Applying McLachlan's framework to our data suggests that the uptake of BFRs was controlled primarily by gaseous partitioning equilibrium for compounds with log octanol-air partition coefficients (K OA) < 12 and by particle-bound deposition for compounds with log K OA > 13. Different relationships between the plant/air partition coefficient (K PA) and K OA, which depend on the uptake mechanisms, were observed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). This paper adds to the current knowledge of the factors and mechanisms governing plant uptake of semivolatile organic compounds with relatively high K OA in the environment. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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