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Labège, France

Llull D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Son O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Blanie S.,GTP Technology | Briffotaux J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology

In the family Streptococcaceae, the genes encoding zinc ABC uptake systems (called zit or adc) are regulated by a coencoded MarR family member (i.e., ZitR or AdcR), whereas in the great majority of bacteria, these genes are regulated by Zur, the Fur-like zinc-responsive repressor. We studied the zit operon from Lactococcus lactis and its regulation in response to Zn(II) in vivo. zit transcription is repressed by Zn(II) in a wide concentration range starting from nontoxic micromolar levels and is derepressed at nanomolar concentrations. The level of zit promoter downregulation by environmental Zn(II) is correlated with the intracellular zinc content. The helix-turn-helix domain of ZitR is required for downregulation. In vitro, the purified protein is a dimer that complexes up to two zinc ligands per monomer and specifically binds two intact palindromic operator sites overlapping the -35 and -10 boxes of the zit promoter. DNA binding is abolished by the chelator EDTA or TPEN and fully restored by Zn(II) addition, indicating that the active repressor complexes Zn(II) with high affinity. These results suggest that derepression under starvation conditions could be an essential emergency mechanism for preserving Zn(II) homeostasis by uptake; under Zn(II)-replete conditions, the function of ZitR repression could be to help save energy rather than to avoid Zn(II) toxicity. The characterization of a MarR family zinc-responsive repressor in this report gives insight into the way Streptococcaceae efficiently adapt to Zn(II) fluctuations in their diverse ecological niches. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Casas C.,Pierre Fabre | Paul C.,University Paul Sabatier | Lahfa M.,University Paul Sabatier | Livideanu B.,University Paul Sabatier | And 9 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology

The aim of this study is to quantify D. folliculorum colonisation in rosacea subtypes and age-matched controls and to determine the relationship between D. folliculorum load, rosacea subtype and skin innate immune system activation markers. We set up a multicentre, cross-sectional, prospective study in which 98 adults were included: 50 with facial rosacea, including 18 with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR), and 32 with papulopustular rosacea (PPR) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Non-invasive facial samples were taken to quantify D. folliculorum infestation by quantitative PCR and evaluate inflammatory and immune markers. Analysis of the skin samples show that D. folliculorum was detected more frequently in rosacea patients than age-matched controls (96% vs 74%, P < 0.01). D. folliculorum density was 5.7 times higher in rosacea patients than in healthy volunteers. Skin sample analysis showed a higher expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-8, Il-1b, TNF-a) and inflammasome-related genes (NALP-3 and CASP-1) in rosacea, especially PPR. Overexpression of LL-37 and VEGF, as well as CD45RO, MPO and CD163, was observed, indicating broad immune system activation in patients with rosacea. In conclusion, D. folliculorum density is highly increased in patients with rosacea, irrespective of rosacea subtype. There appears to be an inverse relationship between D. folliculorum density and inflammation markers in the skin of rosacea patients, with clear differences between rosacea subtypes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Tremillon N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Morello E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Morello E.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Llull D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 12 more authors.

Background: Protein folding in the envelope is a crucial limiting step of protein export and secretion. In order to better understand this process in Lactococcus lactis, a lactic acid bacterium, genes encoding putative exported folding factors like Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerases (PPIases) were searched for in lactococcal genomes. Results: In L. lactis, a new putative membrane PPIase of the cyclophilin subfamily, PpiA, was identified and characterized. ppiA gene was found to be constitutively expressed under normal and stress (heat shock, H2O2) conditions. Under normal conditions, PpiA protein was synthesized and released from intact cells by an exogenously added protease, showing that it was exposed at the cell surface. No obvious phenotype could be associated to a ppiA mutant strain under several laboratory conditions including stress conditions, except a very low sensitivity to H2O2. Induction of a ppiA copy provided in trans had no effect i) on the thermosensitivity of an mutant strain deficient for the lactococcal surface protease HtrA and ii) on the secretion and stability on four exported proteins (a highly degraded hybrid protein and three heterologous secreted proteins) in an otherwise wild-type strain background. However, a recombinant soluble form of PpiA that had been produced and secreted in L. lactis and purified from a culture supernatant displayed both PPIase and chaperone activities. Conclusions: Although L. lactis PpiA, a protein produced and exposed at the cell surface under normal conditions, displayed a very moderate role in vivo, it was found, as a recombinant soluble form, to be endowed with folding activities in vitro. © 2012 Trémillon et al. Source

Manai R.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Scorsone E.,University Paris Est Creteil | Rousseau L.,University Paris Est Creteil | Ghassemi F.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 10 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics

Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are small soluble proteins found in olfactory systems that are capable of binding several types of odorant molecules. Cantilevers based on polycrystalline diamond surfaces are very promising as chemical transducers. Here two methods were investigated for chemically grafting porcine OBPs on polycrystalline diamond surfaces for biosensor development. The first approach resulted in random orientation of the immobilized proteins over the surface. The second approach based on complexing a histidine-tag located on the protein with nickel allowed control of the proteins[U+05F3] orientation. Evidence confirming protein grafting was obtained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence imaging and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical sensing performances of these OBP modified transducers were assessed. The second grafting method led to typically 20% more sensitive sensors, as a result of better access of ligands to the proteins active sites and also perhaps a better yield of protein immobilization. This new grafting method appears to be highly promising for further investigation of the ligand binding properties of OBPs in general and for the development of arrays of non-specific biosensors for artificial olfaction applications. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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