GTN Arts College

Dindigul, India

GTN Arts College

Dindigul, India
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Rajiv Gandhi M.,Gandhigram Rural University | Kousalya G.N.,GTN Arts College | Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

In order to increase the copper sorption capacity (SC) of raw chitosan beads (CB), they were chemically modified into protonated chitosan beads (PCB), carboxylated chitosan beads (CCB) and grafted chitosan beads (GCB) which showed a significant SC of 52, 86 and 126 mg/g respectively while raw chitosan beads (CB) displayed only 40 mg/g. Among the sorbents studied, GCB experienced a higher SC than CB, PCB and CCB. Sorption experiments were performed by varying contact time, pH, presence of co-anions, different initial copper concentrations and temperature for optimization. The nature and morphology of the sorbents were discussed using FTIR and SEM analysis. The copper uptake onto PCB, CCB and GCB obeys the Freundlich isotherm. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the nature of copper sorption is spontaneous and endothermic. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kousalya G.N.,GTN Arts College | Rajiv Gandhi M.,Gandhigram Rural University | Sairam Sundaram C.,Karaikal Polytechnic College | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

Biocomposites made up of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) with chitin and chitosan have been prepared and used for the removal of Fe(III) from aqueous solution. The sorption capacity (SC) of n-HAp, n-HAp/chitin (n-HApC) composite and n-HAp/chitosan (n-HApCs) composite was found to be 4238, 5800 and 6753 mg/kg respectively. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to optimize various equilibrating conditions like contact time, pH and co-ions. The sorbents were characterized by FTIR and EDAX analysis. The sorption process follows Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption of Fe(III) on these composites is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Both the composites showed higher SC than the n-HAp. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kousalya G.N.,GTN Arts College | Gandhi M.R.,Gandhigram Rural University | Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2010

Chitin (C), a biopolymer which showed moderate sorption capacity (SC) towards Cu(II) and Fe(III) was suitably modified to enhance the SC. Three types of modifications viz., protonated chitin (PC), carboxylated chitin (CC) and grafted chitin (GC) were carried out to increase the SC. The modified forms of chitin showed enhanced SC for both Cu(II) and Fe(III) than the raw chitin. These sorbents were characterized by the FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The various influencing parameters viz., contact time, pH and the interference of common anions during the sorption have been investigated. The sorption data was reasonably explained using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicated that, the sorption is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The order of selectivity of Cu(II) and Fe(III) on modified chitin was found to be Fe(III) > Cu(II). The suitability of modified chitin has been tested with the field samples collected in a near by industrial area. The suitable mechanism for the respective metal removal has been established. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Gandhi M.R.,Gandhigram Rural University | Kousalya G.N.,GTN Arts College | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

Modified chitosan beads (CB) were prepared and used for the removal of Fe(III) ions from aqueous solution. The advantages of modified CB than raw CB have been explored. The sorption capacity (SC) of the modified forms of CB namely, protonated CB, carboxylated CB, and grafted CB were found to be 3533, 3905, and 4203 mg kg -1, respectively, while the raw CB showed the SC of 2913 mg kg -1 only. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to optimize various equilibrating conditions like contact time, pH, and coions. The sorbents were characterized by FTIR, WDXRF, and SEM with EDAX analysis. The sorption process has been explained with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as δG°, δH°, and δS° were calculated to understand the nature of sorption. Modified CB are more selective for Fe(III) than Cu(II), which inturn higher than Cr(VI). A suitable mechanism for iron sorption onto modified CB was established. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kousalya G.N.,GTN Arts College | Rajiv Gandhi M.,Gandhigram Rural University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Adsorption Science and Technology | Year: 2010

In the present investigation, bio-inorganic composites composed of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) with chitin and chitosan have been prepared and used for the removal of chromium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. Such composites exhibited a higher Cr(VI) ion sorption capacity than the individual components. The sorption capacities of n-HAp, n-HAp/chitin (n-HApC) composite and n-HAp/chitosan (n-HApCs) composite were found to be 2720, 2845 and 3450 mg/kg, respectively. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to optimize various equilibrating conditions such as the contact time, pH and co-ions. The sorbents were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, BET and EDXA analysis. The sorption process could be fitted by both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. Standard thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs' free energy change, ΔG 0, the standard enthalpy change, ΔH 0, and the standard entropy change, ΔS 0, were calculated in order to obtain an understanding of the nature of the sorption process. The kinetics of the reaction could be fitted by the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The mechanism for Cr(VI) ion sorption onto the composites was established.


Kousalya G.N.,GTN Arts College | Rajiv Gandhi M.,Gandhigram Rural University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2010

Modified forms of chitosan beads were prepared and used for chromium removal from the aqueous solution. The prepared chitosan beads viz., protonated chitosan beads (PCB), carboxylated chitosan beads (CCB) and grafted chitosan beads (GCB) possess enhanced chromium sorption capacities (SCs) of 3239, 3647 and 4057. mg/kg respectively than the raw chitosan beads (CB) which possess the SC of 1298. mg/kg with a minimum contact time of 10. min. The sorption experiments were carried out in batch mode to optimize various influencing parameters viz., contact time, pH, common ions and temperature. The sorbents were characterized by FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The modified chitosan beads remove chromium by means of electrostatic adsorption coupled reduction and complexation. The adsorption data was fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of chromium sorption. A field trial was carried out with water collected from a nearby industrial area. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kousalya G.N.,GTN Arts College | Gandhi M.R.,Gandhigram Rural University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Bioremediation Journal | Year: 2010

Chitin was chemically modified into various forms for enhancing chromium sorption. The modified forms of chitin, viz., protonated chitin (PC), carboxylated chitin (CC), and grafted chitin (GC), possessed enhanced chromium sorption capacities (SCs) of 2812, 3010, and 3770 mg/kg, respectively, than the raw chitin (C), which showed the SC of 2316 mg/kg. The sorption experiments were carried out in batch mode to optimize various influencing parameters, viz., contact time, pH, common ions, and temperature. The sorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The modified forms of chitin removes chromium by means of electrostatic adsorption coupled reduction and complexation. The adsorption data were fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of chromium sorption. The dynamic studies demonstrated that the sorption process follows pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The suitability of these modified chitin has been tested with field sample collected from a nearby industrial area. Copyright © 2010 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Rajiv Gandhi M.,Gandhigram Rural University | Kousalya G.N.,GTN Arts College | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2011

Polymeric composites made up of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) with chitin and chitosan have been prepared and studied for the removal of Cu(II) ions from the aqueous solution. The sorption capacity (SC) of n-HAp, n-HAp/chitin (n-HApC) composite and n-HAp/chitosan (n-HApCs) composite were found to be 4.7, 5.4 and 6.2 mg/g respectively with a minimum contact time of 30 min. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to optimize various equilibrating conditions like contact time, pH and selectivity of metal ion. The sorbents were characterized by FTIR, TEM, XRD and SEM with EDAX analysis. The sorption process was explained with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms respectively. Thermodynamic parameters such as Δ G°, Δ H° and Δ S° were calculated to understand the nature of sorption. A suitable mechanism for copper sorption was established and the selectivity of the metal ions for the composites was identified. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Rajam K.,k-Technology | Rajendran S.,GTN Arts College | Saranya R.,Jayalakshmi Institute of Technology
Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of garlic in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in well water in the absence and presence of Zn 2 + has been evaluated by mass-loss method. The formulation consisting of 2 mL of garlic extract and 25 ppm Zn 2 + offers 70 inhibition efficiency to carbon steel immersed in well water. Polarization study reveals that this formulation controls the anodic reaction predominantly. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe 2 + -allicin complex and Zn(OH) © 2013 K. Rajam et al.


Saravanan S.,GTN Arts College | Lee C.W.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2014

Excitons confined in an InAs1-xPx/InP (x=0.2) quantum well wire are studied in the presence of magnetic field strength. Numerical calculations are carried out using variational approach within the single band effective mass approximation. The compressive strain contribution to the confinement potential is included throughout the calculations. The energy difference of the ground and the first excited state is investigated in the influence of magnetic field strength taking into account the geometrical confinement effect. The magnetic field induced optical band as a function of wire radius is investigated in the InAs0.8P0.2/InP quantum well wire. The valence-band anisotropy is included in our theoretical model by employing different hole masses in different spatial directions. The optical gain as a function of incident photon energy is computed in the presence of magnetic field strength. The corresponding 1.55 μm wavelength is achieved for 40 Å InAs0.8P0.2/InP quantum well wire. We hope that the results could be used for the potential applications in fiber optic communications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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