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Kuopio, Finland

Olin M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Rasilainen K.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Itala A.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Pulkkanen V.-M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | And 9 more authors.
VTT Tiedotteita - Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus | Year: 2011

In the report main results form a KYT2010 programme's project Coupled behaviour of bentonite buffer (PUSKURI) are presented. In THC modelling, Aku Itälä made and published his Master of Science Thesis. Itälä was able to successfully model the LOT-experiment. Additionally, he also listed problems and development proposals for THC-modelling of bentonite buffer. VTT and Numerola created in collaboration a model coupling saturation, diffusion and cation exchange; the model was implemented and tested in Numerrin, COMSOL and TOUGHREACT. Petri Jussila's PhD THM-model was implemented into COMSOL to facilitate further development. At GTK, the mineralogical characterisation of bentonite was planned. The previous THM model (Jussila's model) including only small deformations was successfully generalized to finite deformations in way at least formally preserving the original formalism. It appears that the theory allows also a possibility to include finite plastic deformations in the theory. In order to measure the relevant mechanical properties of compacted bentonite, two different experiments, namely hydrostatic compression experiment and one-dimensional compression experiment were designed. In the hydrostatic compression experiment, a cylindrical sample of compacted bentonite covered with liquid rubber coating is placed in the sample chamber equipped with a piston. The same device was also used in one-dimensional compression experiment. X-ray microtomographic techniques were used in order to study the basic mechanisms of water transport in bentonite. The preliminary results indicate that in the present experimental set-up, water transport is dominated by a dispersive mechanism such as diffusion of vapour in gas phase or diffusion of water in solid phase. Copyright © VTT 2011. Source


Respiratory rehabilitation is an integral part of treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and therapeutic education is one of the cardinal aspects of the patient-centered management. The goal is to help the patient become an active determinant of his-her life with chronic pulmonary disease. Therapeutic education also implies changing caregiver's behavior patterns and rigorous organization including a shared assessment of the educative plan, negotiation, institution of an individualized care program, and evaluation. In the literature on therapeutic education of patients with CODP, authors demonstrate the beneficial impact of therapeutic education for the patients. Nevertheless, in many studies, the evaluation criteria remain disease-rather than patient-centered. Clinical research using validated patient-centered evaluation tools would be useful to obtain an objective assessment of patient-centered therapeutic education. Source


Makinen J.,GTK | Kauppila T.,GTK | Loukola-Ruskeeniemi K.,GTK | Mattila J.,Kymijoen VSY Tapiontie 2C | Miettinen J.,University of Eastern Finland
Journal of Geochemical Exploration | Year: 2010

A geochemical-paleolimnological study was conducted to investigate human influences on three lakes (Nuasjärvi, Jormasjärvi and Kolmisoppi) located in an area with high background levels of metals and sulphur in bedrock and till overburden. Accordingly, background concentrations of Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn were above average in sediments of the study lakes. The land use-related erosion and transport of particulate matter into Lake Nuasjärvi started as early as in the seventeenth century, while increased inputs to Lake Jormasjärvi date to the eighteenth century and Lake Kolmisoppi to the 1970s and 1980s. Local tills and fine-grained sediments are the source of the particles and hydraulic sorting has resulted in elevated sediment concentrations of Ca, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Na and Ni. At the same time, sedimentation of carbon and autochthonous phases has decreased, leading to low concentrations of Co, Fe and Mn in the erosion-associated sediment layers in Nuasjärvi and Kolmisoppi. Despite the geochemical changes, no marked eutrophication of the lakes could be detected with diatom-based nutrient reconstructions during the early land-use period. Elevated amounts of sulphur and chalcophilic elements were deposited throughout the study area during the 1970s and 1980s. In Lake Nuasjärvi combination of the elements is associated with the Lahnaslampi mine and the difference in the sulphide degradation rate is reflected as a sequence of element mobility and sedimentation in the order 1) S, and 2) Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Sb. Sulphur, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn enrichment in the other two lakes is related to other land uses and to atmospheric deposition. In addition to sulphur and metals, these most recent inputs from the catchment have caused nutrient enrichment in all three study lakes, most notably in the lowest-lying Lake Nuasjärvi. This lake has the highest percentage of fine-grained soils in its catchment and also suffers from point source nutrient inputs. In addition, metals (Ni) had a signal in diatom assemblages in Lake Nuasjärvi that was statistically independent of eutrophication (N:C) but inseparable from mineral matter inputs (K). © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Kukkonen I.T.,Geological Survey of Finland | Heikkinen P.,University of Helsinki | Heinonen S.,University of Helsinki | Laitinen J.,Geological Survey of Finland | And 36 more authors.
Special Paper of the Geological Survey of Finland | Year: 2011

The goals of the HIRE (High Resolution Reflection Seismics for Ore Exploration 2007-2010) project have been to (1) extend reflection surveys to exploration of the Precambrian crystalline bedrock of Finland, (2) apply 3D visualization and modelling techniques in data interpretation, and (3) improve the structural database on the most important mineral resource provinces in Finland. In compiling models of the HIRE targets we have used reflection seismic data, airborne and ground geophysics, geological maps and drilling data. Seismic reflection surveys have traditionally been applied in exploring for oil and gas deposits, but currently there is increasing interest in using the method in exploration for mineral deposits in crystalline bedrock areas. This can be attributed to the high resolution provided by the reflection method, which is much better than that of any other conventional geophysical method. In addition, the petrophysical parameters underlying rock reflectivity, i.e., the acoustic impedance, which is a product of rock density and seismic velocity, is closely associated with geological rock properties. Our list of targets comprises fifteen exploration and mining camps in a very diverse selection of geological environments containing Cu, Ni, Cr, PGE, Zn, and Au deposits, most of them economic, as well as the first Finnish site for nuclear waste disposal. The surveys were carried out in co-operation with 12 industrial partners. Fieldwork was completed in 2007-2008, and processing and interpretation in 2009-2010. The surveys comprised 2D lines measured using either Vibroseis sources or dynamite shots in shallow drill holes. Typically, a target area was covered with a network of connected lines with a total length of 10-90 line km, which provided a good database for 3D visualization and modelling. Our seismic contractor was Vniigeofizika, Moscow, Russia, and the company was responsible for the field acquisition and basic processing of the data. The Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, has been our research partner and subcontractor in the project and responsible for the more detailed post-stack processing of the results. Previously unknown structures were revealed in all HIRE targets, and our database on the structures of the investigated deposit areas has considerably expanded. Furthermore, previously unknown potential host rocks of deposits were discovered in several targets. The HIRE results have considerably increased the level of detailed knowledge at previously unexplored depths and it seems that the ore potential of the study areas may be higher than earlier anticipated. The results support the continued application of seismic reflection surveys in mineral exploration. Source

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