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Houston, TX, United States

Luo Y.,Nankai University | Mao D.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Rysz M.,Gsi Environmental | Zhou Q.,Nankai University | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was quantified in water and sediment samples collected from a 72 km stretch of the Haihe River, China. Tetracycline resistance genes (tetW, tetQ, tetO, tetT, tetM, tetB, and tetS) were not detected by quantitative PCR in many samples. In contrast, sul1 and sul2 (coding for sulfonamide resistance) were present at relatively high concentrations in all (38) samples. The highest ARG concentrations detected were (7.8 ± 1.0) × 109 copies/g for sul1 and (1.7 ± 0.2) × 1011 copies/g for sul2, in sediment samples collected during the summer. The corresponding total bacterial concentration (quantified with a universal 16S-rDNA probe) was (3.3 ± 0.4) × 1012 cells/g. Sul1 and sul2 concentrations in sediments were 120-2000 times higher than that in water, indicating that sediments are an important ARG reservoir in the Haihe River. Statistical analysis indicated a positive correlation between the relative abundance of these ARGs (i.e., sul1/16S-rDNA and sul2/16S-rDNA) and the total concentration of sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, plus sulfachlororyridazine, suggesting that sulfonamides exerted selective pressure for these ARGs. A class 1 integron was implicated in the propagation of sul1. Overall, the widespread distribution of sulfonamide ARGs underscores the need to better understand and mitigate their propagation in the environment and the associated risks to public health. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Farthing M.W.,U.S. Army | Seyedabbasi M.A.,Gsi Environmental | Imhoff P.T.,University of Delaware | Miller C.T.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012

The utility of existing models for describing upscaled mass transfer from nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) were examined when preferential dissolution pathways form in NAPL-contaminated zones that extend over the scale of decimeters. Laboratory experiments were conducted in two well-characterized, heterogeneous packings. Using data from these experiments and simulations, existing methods for upscaling the mass transfer rate coefficient for NAPL dissolution based on dissolution front length growth (LDF), aquifer heterogeneity and spatial moments of NAPL distribution, and the ganglia-to-pool ratio (GTP) were evaluated along with an equilibrium stream tube (EST) model for predicting contaminant flux. When the correlation length of permeability perpendicular to the mean water flow direction was 6.0cm, greater than the scale of dissolution fingers, only 4.8% of the NAPL resided in pools. Dissolution fingers formed in this experiment, and the LDF, GTP, and EST models resulted in similar predictions of effluent concentrations, with root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) between 0.035 and 0.079 and the LDF-heterogeneous model best. When the correlation scale was smaller (1.0cm), 66.7% of the NAPL was in pools, and preferential dissolution pathways were dominated by channeling, preferential dissolution caused by spatial variations in aqueous phase permeability, and NAPL saturation. For this experiment the EST and GTP models performed well, with RMSEs of 0.055 and 0.103, respectively. Dissolution fingering was important when the permeability correlation length was sufficiently large that dissolution finger formation was not disrupted and NAPL pools were not dominant. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Hadley P.W.,800 Cal Center Drive | Newell C.,Gsi Environmental
Groundwater | Year: 2014

The groundwater remediation field has been changing constantly since it first emerged in the 1970s. The remediation field has evolved from a dissolved-phase centric conceptual model to a DNAPL-dominated one, which is now being questioned due to a renewed appreciation of matrix diffusion effects on remediation. Detailed observations about contaminant transport have emerged from the remediation field, and challenge the validity of one of the mainstays of the groundwater solute transport modeling world: the concept of mechanical dispersion (Payne et al. 2008). We review and discuss how a new conceptual model of contaminant transport based on diffusion (the usurper) may topple the well-established position of mechanical dispersion (the status quo) that is commonly used in almost every groundwater contaminant transport model, and evaluate the status of existing models and modeling studies that were conducted using advection-dispersion models. © 2013, National Ground Water Association. Source

Eklund B.,URS Corporation | Beckley L.,Gsi Environmental | Yates V.,Gsi Environmental | Mchugh T.E.,Gsi Environmental
Remediation | Year: 2012

A large number of states have issued guidance addressing the vapor intrusion pathway making it difficult to keep up with various policies and requirements. We have compiled and reviewed guidance from 35 states, half of which have issued documents within the last three years. A comparison of policies among states shows reasonable consistency in some areas-for example, 20 of 23 states that provide an exclusion distance for subsurface sources of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) use a distance of 100 feet. However, more commonly, the policy decisions vary widely. Among states, indoor air screening concentrations for the same VOC vary by more than 2,000 times and subsurface screening concentrations vary by more than 2,000,000 times. These wide discrepancies suggest a need for communication and consensus building in order to increase consistency in the management of the vapor intrusion pathway. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Hadley P.W.,Gsi Environmental | Newell C.J.,Gsi Environmental
Ground Water | Year: 2012

Groundwater remediation technologies are designed, installed, and operated based on the conceptual models of contaminant hydrogeology that are accepted at that time. However, conceptual models of remediation can change as new research, new technologies, and new performance data become available. Over the past few years, results from multiple-site remediation performance studies have shown that achieving drinking water standards (i.e., Maximum Contaminant Levels, MCLs) at contaminated groundwater sites is very difficult. Recent groundwater research has shown that the process of matrix diffusion is one key constraint. New developments, such as mass discharge, orders of magnitude (OoMs), and SMART objectives are now being discussed more frequently by the groundwater remediation community. In this paper, the authors provide their perspectives on the existing "reach MCLs" approach that has historically guided groundwater remediation projects, and advocate a new approach built around the concepts of OoMs and mass discharge. © 2012, California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Ground Water © 2012, National GroundWater Association. Source

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