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Troitsk, Russia

Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2010

The lithium emitter-collector concept, supposed the creation of steady state lithium circulation loop close the first wall and plasma periphery, seems as a solution of tokamak reactor first wall problem. This concept of renewable PFC (plasma facing components) has four characteristically steps: Li emission from PFC into the plasma (emitter), the boundary plasma cooling by non-coronal Li radiation, Li ions capture by collector before their deposit on a tokamak vessel wall and Li return from collector and first wall into emitter again. The main subject of the last T-11M experiments was investigations of the lithium collection by limiters. The lithium behavior in shadow of lithium limiter, based on the lithium filled CPS (capillary porous systems), was studied by the analysis of the witness-samples, and by use a mobile graphite probe. It was showed: (1) lithium deposit on the Li-limiter sides is proportional to the total Li emission from the lithium rail limiter (emitter). (2) Lithium deposit on the ion-drift side of Li-limiter to 3-5 times more as on electron side. (3) The total efficiency of Li collection by T-11M limiters can be 70 ± 20% of lithium integral emission from the lithium emitter during plasma operations while the theoretically limit can be 90%. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Lyublinski I.E.,JSC RED STAR | Vertkov A.V.,JSC RED STAR | Zharkov M.Y.,JSC RED STAR | Semenov V.V.,JSC RED STAR | And 8 more authors.
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2013

The projects of ITER and DEMO reactors showed that there are serious difficulties with solving the issues of plasma facing elements (PFE) based on the solid materials. Problems of PFE can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material, in which liquid lithium fills a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, LTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II is a good basis for development of the project of steady-state operating lithium divertor module for Kazakhstan tokamak. At present the lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is development and manufacturing. The paper describes main design features of the module of lithium divertor (MLD). The first step of the hydraulic tests of MLD with fully assembled external thermo-stabilization system, which was connected to in-vessel lithium unit, were performed using ethanol as a model heat transfer media. Test results of MLD have shown that operating parameters of designed and manufactured system for thermo-stabilization are sufficient for proper operation; basic hydraulic characteristics of the system are close to expected values. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mirnov S.V.,GSC RF TRINITI | Alekseev A.G.,GSC RF TRINITI | Belov A.M.,GSC RF TRINITI | Djigailo N.T.,GSC RF TRINITI | And 6 more authors.
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2012

The concept of a steady state tokamak with plasma facing components (PFC) on the basis of liquid lithium circulation demands the decision of three tasks: lithium injection to the plasma, lithium ions collection before their deposition on the vacuum vessel and lithium returning to the injection zone. Main subject of paper is the investigations of Li collection by different types of limiters intersected the scrape-of-layer (SOL) in T-10 and T-11M tokamaks. For finding solution for this problem in T-11M and T-10, experiments have been applied with Li-, C-rail limiters and ring SS R-limiter-collector (T-11M). The efficiency of Li collection by limiters in T-11M and T-10 tokamaks was investigated by post mortem sample-witness analysis and (T-11M) by the use of the mobile graphite probe (limiter) as a recombination target in the stream of lithium ions. The characteristic depth of lithium penetration in the SOL area of T-11M is about 2 cm and 4 cm in SOL of T-10. The quantitative analysis of the sample-witnesses located on T-11M limiters showed that 60 ± 20% of the lithium injected during plasma operating of T-11M had been collected by limiters. It confirms an opportunity of the lithium ions collection by limiters in tokamak SOL. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Smirnov V.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute | Bakshaev Y.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute | Bartov A.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute | Blinov P.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute | And 16 more authors.
PPPS 2001 - Pulsed Power Plasma Science 2001 | Year: 2015

Fast compression of liners is under consideration as a possible approach to electric energy conversion into X-ray pulse at the energy scale of dozens of megajoules. Scientific cooperation including TRINITI, Kurchatov institute, Efremov institute, and VNIITF develops the "Baikal" project in which an inductive storage has to be used which in the case of successive transformation procedure could produce an electric pulse with parameters adequate for these purposes. On the S-300 pulsed power generator, experiments is being carried out studying promising schemes of output devices for the next generation of machines. In particular, a device similar to the plasma flow switch is being investigated aimed to sharpening the current ns. The results of experiments on a current implosion of multi-wire arrays on Angara-5-1 facility are presented. There are given experimental proofs that the formation of Z-pinch takes place at temporally spread plasma production. The phenomena of temporally spread plasma production determines mode and quality of final stage of a pinch. The temporally spread plasma formation is not a hindrance to obtain high power of X-radiation output at compression and heating of a Z-pinch. © 2002 IEEE. Source

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