Rao L.,Gruss Lipper Biophotonics Center |
Nicholas M.P.,Gruss Lipper Biophotonics Center |
Nicholas M.P.,Yeshiva University |
Brenner S.,Gruss Lipper Biophotonics Center |
And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2013
Cytoplasmic dynein is the major microtubule minus end-directed motor. Although studies have probed the mechanism of the C-terminal motor domain, if and how dynein's N-terminal tail and the accessory chains it binds regulate motor activity remain to be determined. Here, we investigate the structure and function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynein light (Dyn2) and intermediate (Pac11) chains in dynein heavy chain (Dyn1) movement. We present the crystal structure of a Dyn2-Pac11 complex, showing Dyn2-mediated Pac11 dimerization. To determine the molecular effects of Dyn2 and Pac11 on Dyn1 function, we generated dyn2Δ and dyn2Δpac11Δ strains and analyzed Dyn1 single-molecule motor activity. We find that the Dyn2-Pac11 complex promotes Dyn1 homodimerization and potentiates processivity. The absence of Dyn2 and Pac11 yields motors with decreased velocity, dramatically reduced processivity, increased monomerization, aggregation, and immobility as determined by single-molecule measurements. Deleting dyn2 significantly reduces Pac11-Dyn1 complex formation, yielding Dyn1 motors with activity similar to Dyn1 from the dyn2Δpac11Δ strain. Of interest, motor phenotypes resulting from Dyn2-Pac11 complex depletion bear similarity to a point mutation in the mammalian dynein N-terminal tail (Loa), highlighting this region as a conserved, regulatory motor element. © 2013 Rao et al.
Roh-Johnson M.,Yeshiva University |
Roh-Johnson M.,Gruss Lipper Biophotonics Center |
Bravo-Cordero J.J.,Yeshiva University |
Bravo-Cordero J.J.,Gruss Lipper Biophotonics Center |
And 11 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014
Most cancer patients die as a result of metastasis, thus it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of dissemination, including intra- and extravasation. Although the mechanisms of extravasation have been vastly studied in vitro and in vivo, the process of intravasation is still unclear. Furthermore, how cells in the tumor microenvironment facilitate tumor cell intravasation is still unknown. Using high-resolution imaging, we found that macrophages enhance tumor cell intravasation upon physical contact. Macrophage and tumor cell contact induce RhoA activity in tumor cells, triggering the formation of actin-rich degradative protrusions called invadopodia, enabling tumor cells to degrade and break through matrix barriers during tumor cell transendothelial migration. Interestingly, we show that macrophage-induced invadopodium formation and tumor cell intravasation also occur in patient-derived tumor cells and in vivo models, revealing a conserved mechanism of tumor cell intravasation. Our results illustrate a novel heterotypic cell contact-mediated signaling role for RhoA, as well as yield mechanistic insight into the ability of cells within the tumor microenvironment to facilitate steps of the metastatic cascade. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.