Barsimantov J.,University of California at Santa Cruz |
Navia Antezana J.,Grupo Mexico
Applied Geography | Year: 2012
Forest cover change in highland pine-oak forests of Michoacan, Mexico is due to a process of conversion of natural forests to avocado orchards. Privately-owned avocado orchards are found on land that was common forest before the 1992 Reform of the Mexican Constitution. We ask how forest cover change was facilitated by policy changes that affected land tenure rules and existing community forestry programs. We use a comparative case study of four communities, an analysis of forest cover change, and interviews and household surveys. Results show that 33.1% of forest cover was lost over a 16-year-period across the region. However, two forestry case study communities lost 7.2% and 15.1% of forest cover, while two adjacent non-forestry communities lost 86.5% and 92.4%, respectively. Interview data show that the Reform of Article 27 combined with the 1992 Forestry Law led to collapse of local governance, illegal division of common forests, and illegal logging in the two non-forestry communities. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Rodriguez M. M.A.,Institute Ecologia |
Rodriguez M. M.A.,Grupo Mexico |
Herrera M. L.G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Oecologia | Year: 2013
Caution for the indiscriminate conversion of the isotopic niche into ecologic niche was recently advised. We tested the utility of the isotopic niche to answer ecological questions on oceanic islands. We compared the isotopic niches of black rats (Rattus rattus) on two islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico: Farrallón de San Ignacio (FSI) and San Pedro Mártir (SPM). Both islands maintained several species of marine birds, but FSI is devoid of terrestrial vegetation and SPM has several species of terrestrial plants. We tested the hypothesis that rats on FSI have a narrower trophic niche due to its lower diversity of food items. We predicted a smaller variance in δ13C and δ15N values of rat muscle on FSI, and a lower use of marine birds as food on SPM. We also examined stomach contents of rats on both islands to validate the isotopic information. Variances in δ13C and δ15N values of black rats were lower on FSI, and the contribution of marine birds to the diet of rats was smaller on SPM. Stomachs in most rats collected on FSI contained only one or two types of food items, mostly marine birds and terrestrial invertebrates. In contrast, stomachs with only one type of food item were rare on SPM, and in most cases they contained three or more food types. Our findings showed that isotopic variance is a good approximation for trophic niche when comparing populations with access to an assemblage of preys with contrasting biological and isotopic diversity. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Zampas C.,University of Miami |
Andion-Ibanez X.,Grupo Mexico
European Journal of Health Law | Year: 2012
The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations to national governments as well as to international and regional bodies on how to regulate conscientious objection so as to both respect the practice of conscientious objection while protecting individual's right to reproductive health care. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012.
Carballido-Gamio J.,Grupo Mexico |
Majumdar S.,University of California at San Francisco
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine | Year: 2011
Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of knee cartilage properties at corresponding anatomic locations could be a valuable tool in studies of knee osteoarthritis by enabling accurate comparisons at practically any region. A technique of this kind is presented in this study. The proposed technique is based on gray-level bone matching using affine transformations and free-form deformations thus eliminating the need of bone segmentations and landmark matching. Sixteen subjects of the osteoarthritis initiative with knee osteoarthritis (10 from baseline; 6 from 24-month follow-up) were included in this study. Baseline subjects were used to create a gray-level atlas of the patella with its corresponding mean cartilage thickness and T 2 maps. Follow-up subjects were used to validate atlas-based point-to-point cartilage comparisons. All registrations were qualitatively evaluated with fused gray-level images of registered patellas. Quantitative evaluation was performed based on mean values of minimum Euclidean distances between matched bone-cartilage interfaces. A mean distance of 0.554 mm was obtained between the subjects used to build the atlas, and a mean distance of 0.633 mm was found between the atlas and validation subjects. The technique can be applied to other anatomical regions and with other cartilage measures. Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate the accuracy of the technique and warrant its application in larger cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of osteoarthritis. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Maldonado C.V.,Hospital Insular of Las Palmas |
Paz R.D.-R.,Hospital Insular of Las Palmas |
Martin C.B.,Grupo Mexico
European Spine Journal | Year: 2011
Introduction The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD) in patients who underwent cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) as compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods It is a prospective cohort study of patients with a single-level cervical degenerative disc disease from C3 to C7 who underwent CDA or ACDF between January 2004 and December 2006, with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. The patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively with the visual analog scale (VAS), the neck disability index (NDI), and a complete neurological examination. Plain radiographic assessments included sagittal-plane angulation, range of motion (ROM), and radiological signs of ASD. Results One hundred and five patients underwent ACDF and 85 were treated with CDA. The postoperative VAS and NDI were equivalent in both groups. The ROM was preserved in the CDA group but with a small decreased tendency within the time. Radiographic evidence of ASD was found in 11 (10.5%) patients in the ACDF group and in 7 (8.8%) subjects in the CDA group. The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis for the ASD occurrence did not reach statistically significant differences (log rank, P = 0.72). Conclusions Preservation of motion in the CDA patients was not associated with a reduction of the incidence of symptomatic adjacent-segment disease and there may be other factors that influence ASD. © Springer-Verlag 2011.