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Polo-Hernandez E.,University of Salamanca | De Castro F.,Grupo de Neurobiologia Del Desarrollo GNde | Garcia-Garcia A.G.,University of Salamanca | Tabernero A.,University of Salamanca | Medina J.M.,University of Salamanca
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2010

Our previous works showed that oleic acid synthesized in vitro by astrocytes in response to albumin behaves as a neurotrophic factor in neurons, up-regulating several proteins, such as the axonal growth marker growth-associated protein 43(GAP-43). Although the molecular mechanism of this process is fairly known, there is no evidence pinpointing the region/s in which oleic acid is synthesized. In this study, we show that the rate-limiting enzyme in oleic acid synthesis, steroyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1), is located in the periventricular zone of the brain of newborn rats, simultaneously to an increase in the amount of free oleic acid in the forebrain. In addition, the spatio-temporal presence of albumin - the signal that promotes oleic acid synthesis - and that of GAP-43 are correlated with that of SCD-1. Using organotypic slice cultures, we found that albumin up-regulates SCD-1 and stimulates the growth of GAP-43-positive axons in the striatum. The effect of albumin on GAP-43 was reduced when SCD-1 was silenced by siRNA. In conclusion, our results suggest that albumin up-regulates axonogenesis in the striatum by increasing the amount of the neurotrophic factor oleic acid synthesized by SCD-1 in the periventricular zone of the newborn brain. © 2010 International Society for Neurochemistry. Source

Suarez R.,University of Queensland | Suarez R.,University of Chile | Garcia-Gonzalez D.,Grupo de Neurobiologia Del Desarrollo GNde | de Castro F.,Grupo de Neurobiologia Del Desarrollo GNde
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy | Year: 2012

The sense of smell plays a crucial role in the sensory world of animals. Two chemosensory systems have been traditionally thought to play independent roles in mammalian olfaction. According to this, the main olfactory system specialises in the detection of environmental odorants, while the vomeronasal system senses pheromones and semiochemicals produced by individuals of the same or different species. Although both systems differ in their anatomy and function, recent evidence suggests they act synergistically in the perception of scents. These interactions include similar responses to some ligands, overlap of telencephalic connections and mutual influences in the regulation of olfactory-guided behaviour. In the present work, we propose the idea that the relationships between systems observed at the organismic level result from a constant interaction during development and reflects a common history of ecological adaptations in evolution. We review the literature to illustrate examples of developmental and evolutionary processes that evidence these interactions and propose that future research integrating both systems may shed new light on the mechanisms of olfaction. © 2012 Suarez, García-gonzález and Decastro. Source

Summary. The physiological particularities that occur during the development of the olfactory system make it one of the most fascinating parts of the central nervous system and one of models that has been most widely studied in order to understand the mechanisms related with axonal growth and guidance towards the right targets. A variety of mechanisms are known, some mediated by contact (laminins, cell adhesion molecules, ephrins, etc.) and others that are secreted (semaphorins, slits, growth factors, etc.), to play diverse roles in establishing the synaptic interactions among the olfactory epithelium, the olfactory bulb and the olfactory cortex. In relation to this, other specific mechanisms for this system have also been proposed, including the incredible family of close to 1000 different olfactory receptors. In recent years, different reviews have focused on the partial elements of this system, especially on the mechanisms involved in the formation of the olfactory nerve. However, no detailed review of those related with the development of the connections between the different olfactory structures (epithelium, bulb and cortex) has been put forward to date. In this first part of the review, we address this topic from the following perspective: the different cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide the formation of the olfactory nerve and the lateral olfactory tract. © 2011 Revista de Neurología. Source

Melero-Jerez C.,Grupo de Neurobiologia Del Desarrollo GNde | Ortega M.C.,Grupo de Neurobiologia Del Desarrollo GNde | Ortega M.C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Moline-Velazquez V.,University of Granada | Clemente D.,Grupo de Neurobiologia Del Desarrollo GNde
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2016

The knowledge of the immune system elements and their relationship with other tissues, organs and systems are key approximations for the resolution of many immune-related disorders. The control of the immune response and/or its modulation from the pro-inflammatory to the anti-inflammatory response is being deeply studied in the field. In the last years, the study of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a group of immature myeloid cells with a high suppressive activity on T cells has been extensively addressed in cancer. In contrast, their role in neuroimmune diseases is far from being totally understood. In this review, we will summarize data about MDSCs coming from the study of neuroinflammatory diseases in general and their potential role in multiple sclerosis, in order to introduce the putative use of this extraordinary promising cell type for future cell-based therapies.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuro Inflammation edited by Helga E. de Vries and Markus Schwaninger. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Moline-Velazquez V.,Grupo de Neurobiologia Del Desarrollo GNde | Cuervo H.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Vila-Del Sol V.,Grupo de Neurobiologia Del Desarrollo GNde | Ortega M.C.,Grupo de Neurobiologia Del Desarrollo GNde | And 2 more authors.
Brain Pathology | Year: 2011

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating/inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Relapsing-remitting MS is characterized by a relapsing phase with clinical symptoms and the production of inflammatory cell infiltrates, and a period of remission during which patients recover partially. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature cells capable of suppressing the inflammatory response through Arginase-I (Arg-I) activity, among other mechanisms. Here, we have identified Arg-I +-MDSCs in the spinal cord during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), cells that were largely restricted to the demyelinating plaque and that always exhibited the characteristic MDSC surface markers Arg-I/CD11b/Gr-1/M-CSF1R. The presence and density of Arg-I +-cells, and the proportion of apoptotic but not proliferative T cells, were correlated with the EAE time course: peaked in parallel with the clinical score, decreased significantly during the remitting phase and completely disappeared during the chronic phase. Spinal cord-isolated MDSCs of EAE animals augmented the cell death when co-cultured with stimulated control splenic CD3 T cells. These data point to an important role for MDSCs in limiting inflammatory damage in MS, favoring the relative recovery in the remitting phase of the disease. Thus, the MDSC population should be considered as a potential therapeutic target to accelerate the recovery of MS patients. © 2011 International Society of Neuropathology. Source

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