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Higuita-Castro N.,Ohio State University | Gallego-Perez D.,Ohio State University | Pelaez-Vargas A.,University of Porto | Garcia Quiroz F.,Grupo de Investigacion en Ingenieria Biomedica EIA CES GIBEC | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Modified Portland cement porous scaffolds with suitable characteristics for load-bearing bone tissue engineering applications were manufactured by combining the particulate leaching and foaming methods. Non-crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane was evaluated as a potential reinforcing material. The scaffolds presented average porosities between 70 and 80% with mean pore sizes ranging from 300 μm up to 5.0 mm. Non-reinforced scaffolds presented compressive strengths and elastic modulus values of 2.6 and 245 MPa, respectively, whereas reinforced scaffolds exhibited 4.2 and 443 MPa, respectively, an increase of ∼62 and 80%. Portland cement scaffolds supported human osteoblast-like cell adhesion, spreading, and propagation (t = 1-28 days). Cell metabolism and alkaline phosphatase activity were found to be enhanced at longer culture intervals (t ≥ 14 days). These results suggest the possibility of obtaining strong and biocompatible scaffolds for bone repair applications from inexpensive, yet technologically advanced materials such as Portland cement. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Gallego-Perez D.,Ohio State University | Higuita-Castro N.,Ohio State University | Quiroz F.G.,Grupo de Investigacion en Ingenieria Biomedica EIA CES GIBEC | Posada O.M.,Grupo de Investigacion en Ingenieria Biomedica EIA CES GIBEC | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2011

The need for a suitable scaffolding material for load bearing bone tissue engineering still has yet to be met satisfactorily. In this study, Portland cement and Portland cement/metakaolin (MK) blends were processed to render them biologically and mechanically suitable for such application. Portland cement was mixed with MK at different ratios. The slurries were hydrated under atmospheric (noncarbonated samples) and high-CO 2 conditions (carbonated samples). The mechanical properties were characterized via compressive tests. The bioactivity was analyzed in a simulated body fluid solution. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate sample morphology and chemistry. The cytocompatibility (direct contact assay, MTT test, and alkaline phosphatase activity) was tested using human osteoblast-like cells. Cell responses were observed via conventional and electron microscopy. The results showed that the implementation of MK did not significantly influence the mechanical properties. All the samples evidenced bioactive behavior. Cell experiments confirmed a highly cytotoxic response to the noncarbonated specimens. The introduction of MK as well as the CO 2 pretreatment significantly improved the cytocompatibility of the specimens. These results show that properly processed Portland cement and Portland cement/MK blends could present suitable properties for the development of load-bearing scaffolding structures in bone tissue-engineering applications © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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