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Montevideo, Uruguay

Breast cancer (BC) is a polygenic and multifactorial disease for which estrogens have been recognized as the main risk factor, and for which lifestyle plays a key role. Previous epidemiologic cancer research performed in Uruguayan population delimited its dietary and anthropometric profiles. Recognizing the difficulty for universalizing a nutritional basis for prevention due to different eating patterns among regions and countries, we summarize the existent knowledge linking nutrition, estrogens, metabolism and BC. As an attempt towards primary prevention of BC, we present recommendations mainly based on country-specific research findings and modifiable putative risk and protective factors, proposing to modify the intake of meats and other fatty foods - especially sources of Ω-6 and Ω-3 fatty acids - adding olive oil, selected vegetables, citrus fruits and working towards adequate body fat/muscle proportions. From a medical and ethical viewpoint, it is justified to recommend certain nutritional changes to women, because no adverse side effects are expected to occur. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ronco A.L.,Institute Radiologia | De Stefani E.,Grupo de Epidemiologia | Deneo-Pellegrini H.,Grupo de Epidemiologia
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

In order to thoroughly analyze risk factors of breast cancer (BC) in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women's Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, were administered a short food frequency questionnaire and undertook a series of body measurements necessary to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR) coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Among the classical risk factors, only the family history of BC in first degree relatives was significantly associated with risk of premenopausal BC (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.33-3.62). Interestingly, this risk factor was found to be stronger in women of ages >40 (OR=4.05, 95% CI 2.10-7.81), late menarche (OR= 2.39, 95% CI 1.18-4.85), early age for their first delivery (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.26-7.22), short time between menarche and first delivery (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.29-8.07), and with high parity (OR=4.10, 95% CI 1.79-9.36), although heterogeneity was detected only for age and parity. High consumption of red meat was positively associated with the disease risk (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.35-3.60), in the same way as fried foods (OR=1.79, 95% CI 1.12-2.84). Conversely, a high intake of plant foods displayed a protective effect (OR=0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.65). Except for hypertension (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.35), none of the analyzed components of metabolic syndrome were associated to BC risk. Particular increases of risk for premenopausal BC were found for family history in first degree relatives in certain subsets derived from the menstrual-reproductive history. Preventive strategies could broaden their scope if new studies confirm the present results, in view of the limited prevention measures that premenopausal BC currently has. Source

De Stefani E.,Grupo de Epidemiologia | Correa P.,Vanderbilt University | Deneo-Pellegrini H.,Grupo de Epidemiologia | Boffetta P.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2011

In order to determine to the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study in the time period 1996-2004. The study included 1,098 participants (460 cases and 638 controls). All the patients were drawn from the four major hospitals in Montevideo, Uruguay. Statistical analysis was performed using unconditional multiple logistic regression and the models included age, residence, urban/rural status, education, monthly income, body mass index, menopausal status, age at menarche, parity, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy, total vegetables and fruits, and BaP intake. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of BaP intake (OR 2.0, 95 % CI 1.2-3.3) was significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Alcohol drinking was also directly associated with breast cancer risk (OR 1.63, 95 % CI 1.19-2.23) and the joint effect of BaP and alcohol drinking showed an elevated risk of the disease (OR 3.32, 95 % CI 2.17-5.06). The present study suggests that elevated consumption of BaP could play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. This effect is enhanced by the intake of alcohol. Source

Ronco A.L.,Depto. De Epidemiologia y Metodo Cientifico | De Stefani E.,Grupo de Epidemiologia | Deneo-Pellegrini H.,Grupo de Epidemiologia | Boffetta P.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010

Breast cancer (BC) shows very high incidence rates in Uruguayan women. The present factor analysis of ductal carcinoma of the breast, the most frequent histological type of this malignancy both in Uruguay and in the World, was conducted at a prepaid hospital of Montevideo, Uruguay. We identified 111 cases with ductal BC and 222 controls with normal mammograms. A factor analysis was conducted using 39 food groups, allowing retention of six factors analyzed through logistic regression in order to obtain odds ratios (OR) associated with ductal BC. The low fat and non-alcoholic beverage patterns were inversely associated (OR=0.30 and OR=0.45, respectively) with risk. Conversely, the fatty cheese pattern was positively associated (OR=4.17) as well as the fried white meat (OR=2.28) and Western patterns (OR 2.13). Ductal BC shared similar dietary risk patterns as those identified by studies not discriminating between histologic type of breast cancer. Source

De Stefani E.,Grupo de Epidemiologia | Deneo-Pellegrini H.,Grupo de Epidemiologia | Boffetta P.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Aune D.,University of Oslo | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2010

Objective In order to explore the role of broader eating patterns in the etiology of prostate cancer, we conducted a principal components analysis among Uruguayan men. Methods The study included 345 newly diagnosed cases of advanced prostate cancer and 690 hospitalized controls. The factor analysis was performed using the control population. Results Factor analysis allowed the extraction of five patterns, labeled as prudent, traditional, substituter, drinker, and Western. Whereas the traditional and Western patterns were directly associated with risk of prostate cancer (OR for high quartile versus the low quartile of the Western diet was 2.35, 95% CI 1.44-3.85, p-value for trend<0.0001), the prudent, drinker, and substituter patterns were not associated with risk of the disease. After adjustment of each pattern for the foods with high loadings, these three patterns did not modify substantially their original ORs. Conclusion The Western and traditional patterns could partially explain the high incidence of advanced prostate cancer in Uruguay, a main producer of beef in the World. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010. Source

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