Venado Tuerto, Argentina
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Milardovich N.,Laboratorio Of Electricidad | Prevosto L.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Lara M.A.,UNR
Advanced Electromagnetics | Year: 2014

A numerical investigation on the harmonic disturbances in low-voltage cables feeding large LED loads is reported. A frequency domain analysis on several commerciallyavailable LEDs was performed to investigate the signature of the harmonic current injected into the power system. Four-core cables and four single-core cable arrangements (three phases and neutral) of small, medium, and large conductor cross sections, with the neutral conductor cross section approximately equal to the half of the phase conductors, were examined. The cables were modelled by using electromagnetic finite-element analysis software. High harmonic power losses (up to 2.5 times the value corresponding to an undistorted current of the same rms value of the first harmonic of the LED current) were found. A generalized ampacity model was employed for re-rating the cables. It was found that the cross section of the neutral conductor plays an important role in the derating of the cable ampacity due to the presence of a high-level of triplen harmonics in the distorted current. The ampacity of the cables should be derated by about 40 %, almost independent of the conductor cross sections. The calculation have shown that an incoming widespread use of LED lamps in lighting could create significant additional harmonic losses in the supplying low-voltage lines, and thus more severe harmonic emission limits should be defined for LED lamps. © 2014, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.


Prevosto L.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,CONICET | Mancinelli B.R.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2012

Langmuir probe measurements in an atmospheric pressure direct current (dc) plasma jet are reported. Sweeping probes were used. The experiment was carried out using a dc non-transferred arc torch with a rod-type cathode and an anode of 5 mm diameter. The torch was operated at a nominal power level of 15 kW with a nitrogen flow rate of 25 Nl min -1. A flat ion saturation region was found in the current-voltage curve of the probe. The ion saturation current to a cylindrical probe in a high-pressure non local thermal equilibrium (LTE) plasma was modeled. Thermal effects and ionization/recombination processes inside the probe perturbed region were taken into account. Averaged radial profiles of the electron and heavy particle temperatures as well as the electron density were obtained. An electron temperature around 11 000 K, a heavy particle temperature around 9500 K and an electron density of about 4 × 10 22 m -3, were found at the jet centre at 3.5 mm downstream from the torch exit. Large deviations from kinetic equilibrium were found throughout the plasma jet. The electron and heavy particle temperature profiles showed good agreement with those reported in the literature by using spectroscopic techniques. It was also found that the temperature radial profile based on LTE was very close to that of the electrons. The calculations have shown that this method is particularly useful for studying spraying-type plasma jets characterized by electron temperatures in the range 9000-14 000 K. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Prevosto L.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,CONICET | Mancinelli B.R.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2014

Sweeping double probe measurements in an atmospheric pressure direct current vortex-stabilized plasma jet are reported (plasma conditions: 100 A discharge current, N2 gas flow rate of 25 Nl/min, thoriated tungsten rod-type cathode, copper anode with 5 mm inner diameter). The interpretation of the double probe characteristic was based on a generalization of the standard double floating probe formulae for non-uniform plasmas coupled to a non-equilibrium plasma composition model. Perturbations caused by the current to the probe together with collisional and thermal processes inside the probe perturbed region were taken into account. Radial values of the average electron and heavy particle temperatures as well as the electron density were obtained. The calculation of the temperature values did not require any specific assumption about a temperature relationship between different particle species. An electron temperature of 10900 ± 900 K, a heavy particle temperature of 9300 ± 900 K, and an electron density of about 3.5 × 10 22 m-3 were found at the jet centre at 3.5 mm downstream from the torch exit. Large deviations from kinetic equilibrium were found toward the outer border of the plasma jet. These results showed good agreement with those previously reported by the authors by using a single probe technique. The calculations have shown that this method is particularly useful for studying spraying-type plasma torches operated at power levels of about 15 kW. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Prevosto L.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,CONICET | Mancinelli B.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas
Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing | Year: 2016

A model of an atmospheric pressure nitrogen glow discharge in high-gas temperature regimes is developed. The model considers a fairly complete set of chemical reactions, including several processes with the participation of electronically exited nitrogen atoms describing the energy balance and charged particles kinetic processes in the discharge. It is shown that the thermal dissociation of vibrationally excited molecules plays an essential role in the production of N(4S) atoms. The dominant ion within the investigated current range (52–187 mA) is the molecular N2 + with an increasing proportion of atomic N+ towards high-current values. The process of production of electrons within the almost whole current range is controlled predominantly by associative ionization in atomic collisions N(2P) + N(2P) → N2 + + e; being the N(2P) atoms mainly produced via quenching of N2(A3∑u +) electronically excited molecules by N(4S) atoms. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data and a good agreement is found. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Prevosto L.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,CONICET | Mancinelli B.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Chamorro J.C.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas
Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing | Year: 2015

The present work provides a detailed kinetic analysis of the time-resolved dynamics of the gas heating during the arc reattachment in nitrogen gas in order to understand the main processes leading to such a fast reattachment. The model includes gas heating due to the relaxation of the energy stored in the vibrational as well as the electronic modes of the molecules. The results show that the anode arc reattachment is essentiality a threshold process, corresponding to a reduced electric field value of E/N ~ 40 Td for the plasma discharge conditions considered in this work. The arc reattachment is triggered by a vibrational instability whose development requires a time of the order of 100 µs. For E/N < 80–100 Td, most of the electron energy is transferred to gas heating through the mechanism of vibrational–translational relaxation. For larger values of E/N the electronic–translational energy relaxation mechanism produces a further intensification of the gas heating. The sharp increase of the gas heating rate during the last few µs of the vibrational instability give rises to a sudden transition from a diffuse (glow-like) discharge to a constricted arc with a high current density (~107 A/m2). This sudden increase in the current density gives rise to a new anode attachment closer to the cathode (where the voltage drop between the original arc and the anode is the largest) thus causing the decay of the old arc spot. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Prevosto L.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,CONICET | Mancinelli B.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | And 2 more authors.
Physics of Plasmas | Year: 2015

Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage-current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm2, both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.


Prevosto L.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,CONICET | Mancinelli B.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2013

This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Prevosto L.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,CONICET | Mancinelli B.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2011

Experimental observations on the plasma dynamics inside the nozzle of a 30 A oxygen cutting torch operated at conditions close to the double arcing are reported. It is employed a technique previously developed in our laboratory consisting in using the nozzle as a large-sized Langmuir probe. Based on the behavior of the ion current signal and simple estimations, it is concluded that (1) the non-equilibrium plasma inside the nozzle is far from the steady state in time, in contrast to what is frequently assumed. The power supply ripple was identified as the main fluctuations source and (2) large-scale plasma fluctuations inside the nozzle could cause transient (total duration of the order of 100 μs) Townsend avalanches developing in the space-charge layer located between the arc plasma and the nozzle wall. Such events trigger the so called non-destructive double-arcing phenomena without appealing to the presence of insulating films deposited inside the nozzle orifice, as was previously proposed in the literature. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.


Prevosto L.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Artana G.,Laboratorio Of Fluidodinmica | Kelly H.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas | Kelly H.,CONICET | Mancinelli B.,Grupo de Descargas Electricas
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2011

A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.


This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 0.07 eV (= 11400 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

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