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Gdańsk, Poland

Siemek J.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Nagy S.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Siemek P.,Grupa LOTOS SA
Problemy Ekorozwoju | Year: 2013

In the current century, natural gas has become the most important fossil energy resource and also important energy fuel in general.And these are both due to significant resources, especially of unconventional natural gas, and ease of transport or transmission, use but also the level of carbon dioxide emissions from burning natural gas.Significant increase in gas consumption, in all regions, will be marked in the energy sector.Northern America and Western and Central Europe consume most of the gas on electricity and heat production.The exploration of unconventional gas reservoirs has been discussed recently in several scientific fields.Technical, organizational and economic challenges related to sustainable exploration, documentation of reserves, exploitation and development of shale gas technology have been addressed in this paper.Activities oriented to acceleration of prospecting and investment activities as well as difficulties with introducing pro-ecological procedures and technical modifications caused by minimization of influence of the drilling and environmental simulation of production wells have been presented.This study explains some ecological aspects of the extraction technology.The pace of technological development in Poland may be considerably delayed by the new requirements set by geological and mining law, slowing down of exploration works and recognition of most important gaseous horizons.The scope of investments spent on infrastructure for treating, transport and distribution of gas may have an impact on the rate of realizing energy investment.The rate of development of industry will be conditioned by properly defined economic objectives and the feasible development of gaseous energy industry, being an element supporting the classic coal energy, now mainly a regulation of energy sales in peak seasons.Probable scenarios (based upon business, legal and geological situation) have been discussed. Source


Fraczek P.,University of Rzeszow | Kaliski M.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Siemek P.,Grupa LOTOS SA
Archives of Mining Sciences | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to discuss the conditions for the modernization of the energy sector in the Netherlands following the discovery of natural gas deposits in the country and a rapidly growing importance of this fuel. Hence the paper presents the essence of the model of transition management in the energy sector. It also shows the nature of changes in the structure of primary energy sources in the Netherlands and the decisive factors that led to the prominent role of natural gas in this country. These considerations formed the basis for discussion on the contemporary energy policy in the Netherlands. Source


Fraczek P.,University of Rzeszow | Kaliski M.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Siemek P.,Grupa LOTOS SA
Archives of Mining Sciences | Year: 2013

The paper discusses the essence of Poland's energy security, decisive factors for its attainment and the structure of primary energy sources of the country. It describes the main problem areas in functioning of the energy sector in Poland, as well as the conditions for its modernization. The issues of increasing the natural gas share in the country's structure of primary energy sources and a construction of the first nuclear power plant in Poland have been particularly emphasised. The paper stresses that without modernizing actions it will be impossible for Poland to fulfil international obligations concerning changes in the functioning of the energy sector. The study, analysing the conditions for increasing the role of natural gas in Poland, points at the necessity to expand the gas infrastructure, to increase a scale of gas production from domestic deposits and to complete liberalization of the energy industry. It also emphasises that a potential delay in the construction of the country's first nuclear power plant may limit competitiveness of the economy. Source


Dampc J.,Grupa LOTOS SA | Szkodo M.,Technical University of Gdansk
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2015

The work shows the results of the tests of 9Cr-1Mo steel, which was for 10 years operated in the CCR platforming unit in Group Lotos SA in Gdańsk, and then in the laboratory was sulphidised during 166 h at a temperature of 600 °C. Sulphidation was performed in a mixture of H2-H2S gases at the vapour pressure of sulphur 4.1·10-14atm, so the order of magnitude of vapour pressure was less than that of the dissociation pressure of FeS. Although sulphidising took place in conditions which preclude any iron sulphide formation, research results have demonstrated that after 166 hour exposure in reaction mixture in 9Cr-1Mo steel produces iron and chromium sulfides. Sulphide precipitates form under a layer of fine carbides, located directly on the surface of steel. Formation of scale sulphide here is most likely caused by the penetration of hydrogen sulphide through the porous layer of carbides that increases the pressure of hydrogen sulphide. Thus the vapour of sulphur in apertures and narrow passages occurs between the layer of carbides and the rest of oversaturated carbon layer top, until its pressure value is reached allowing the formation of sulphide scaling. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source


Majchrowicz J.,Grupa LOTOS SA | Herra M.,Grupa LOTOS SA
Hydrocarbon Engineering | Year: 2011

Grupa LOTOS, a vertically integrated oil company working in the field of crude oil production, refining, and oil products distribution, employs an online model, Visual MESA, to monitor and optimize the energy system. The energy system is based around several steam pressure levels, with a set of fired boilers producing high pressure steam, a set of steam turbo generators producing electricity, and a set of process heaters which can run with fuel gas and fuel oil. The steps of the system include data collection and control system review, software installation, model building and optimization configuration, midpoint review and users training, and burn in period. An important monitoring aspect of the system include the continuous auditing of the energy system so the data can be relied on for evaluating the value of energy production and usage, and waste can be eliminated. Imbalances are flagged graphically by using balloons of different colors and sizes. Source

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