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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Neau E.,University of Paris Descartes | Delannoy J.,University of Paris Descartes | Marion C.,University of Paris Descartes | Cottart C.-H.,AP HP | And 6 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2016

Food allergies can have significant effects on morbidity and on quality of life. Therefore, the development of efficient approaches to reduce the risk of developing food allergies is of considerable interest. The aim of this study was to identify and select probiotic strains with preventive properties against allergies using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches. To that end, 31 strains of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria were screened for their immunomodulatory properties in two cellular models, namely, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T helper 2 (Th2)-skewed murine splenocytes. Six strains inducing a high interleukin-10 (IL-10)/IL-12p70 ratio and a low secretion of IL-4 on the two cellular models were selected, and their protective impact was tested in vivo in a murine model of food allergy to β-lactoglobulin. Three strains showed a protective impact on sensitization, with a decrease in allergen-specific IgE, and on allergy, with a decrease in mast cell degranulation. Analysis of the impact of these three strains on the T helper balance revealed different mechanisms of action. The Lactobacillus salivarius LA307 strain proved to block Th1 and Th2 responses, while the Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis LA308 strain induced a pro-Th1 profile and the Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA305 strain induced pro-Th1 and regulatory responses. These results demonstrate that a combination of in vitro and in vivo screening is effective in probiotic strain selection and allowed identification of three novel probiotic strains that are active against sensitization in mice. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Plut C.,Groupe Pileje | Seyrig C.,Groupe Pileje | Leclerc C.,Larena
Phytotherapie | Year: 2010

The numerous properties of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are well-known. The ratio of ω6 on ω3 PUFA is a key element in the benefit of vegetable oils, Camelina oil, which has been authorized for use in food since 1999 in France, presents an optimal ω6/ω3 ratio and could be considered the ideal vegetable oil. Its fatty acid's composition gives to this oil the status of an ideal food to contribute to the cardiovascular and brain function. © 2010 Springer Verlag.

Nebot-Vivinus M.,Nice University Hospital Center | Nebot-Vivinus M.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Harkat C.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Bzioueche H.,Nice University Hospital Center | And 12 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Aim: To investigate the effect of the probiotic combination Lactibiane Tolerance® (LT) on epithelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo Methods: The effect of the multispecies probiotic LT was assessed on several models of epithelial barrier function both in vitro (in basal and inflammatory conditions) and in vivo [visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress or by colonic perfusion of a fecal supernatant (FSN) from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)]. In vitro, we measured the permeability of confluent T84 cell monolayers incubated with or without LT by evaluating the paracellular flux of macromolecules, in basal conditions and after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or with conditioned medium of colonic biopsies from IBS patients (IBS-CM). In vivo, male C57/Bl6 mice received orally NaCl or LT for 15 d and were submitted to water avoidance stress (WAS) before evaluating visceral sensitivity by measuring the myoelectrical activity of the abdominal muscle and the paracellular permeability with 51Cr-EDTA. Permeability and sensitivity were also measured after colonic instillation of FSN. Tight-junctions were assessed by immunoblotting and TLR-4 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry Results: Incubation of T84 cell monolayers with LT in basal conditions had no significant effect on permeability (P > 0.05 vs culture medium). By contrast, addition of LT bacterial bodies (LT) completely prevented the LPS-induced increase in paracellular permeability (P < 0.01 vs LPS 10 ng/mL (LPS 10); P < 0.01 vs LPS 100 ng/mL (LPS 100), P > 0.05 vs culture medium). The effect was dose dependent as addition of 109 LT bacterial bodies induced a stronger decrease in absorbance than 106 LT (109 LT + LPS 10: -20.1% ± 13.4, P < 0.01 vs LPS 10; 106 LT + LPS 10: -11.6% ± 6.2, P < 0.01 vs LPS 10; 109 LT + LPS 100: -14.4% ± 5.5, P < 0.01 vs LPS 100; 106 LT + LPS 100: -11.6% ± 7.3, P < 0.05 vs LPS 100). Moreover, the increase in paracellular permeability induced by culturing T84 cells with conditioned medium of colonic biopsies from IBS patients (IBS-CM) was completely inhibited in the presence of 109 LT (P< 0.01 vs IBS-CM). LT also significantly prevented the epithelial disruption induced by intracolonic infusion of fecal supernatant from IBS patients (P < 0.01 vs IBS FSN) or water avoidance stress P < 0.01 vs WAS) in C57/Bl6 mice and increased the expression of occludin in vitro and in vivo, as assessed by immnunoblotting. The WAS-induced effect on visceral sensitivity was prevented by LT treatment since values obtained for all steps of colorectal distension were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the WAS group. Finally, LT downregulated the response mediated through TLR-4 in vitro (decrease in tumor necrosis factor α secretion in response to LPS: -65.8% for 109 LT and -52.5% for 106 LT, P < 0.01 vs LPS) and in vivo (inhibition of WAS induced an increase in TLR-4 expression in the LT treated mice colon, P < 0.01 vs WAS). Conclusion: The probiotic LT mix prevented the disruption to the epithelial barrier induced by LPS, stress or colonic soluble factors from IBS patients and prevented visceral hypersensitivity. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Liu Y.,Institute of cardiometabolism and nutrition | Liu Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Liu Y.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Cotillard A.,Institute of cardiometabolism and nutrition | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization. Results: Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24±0.50 vs +0.12±0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02), without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (%) increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02). Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement. Conclusions: Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes. © 2015 Liu et al.

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