Agut H.,University Pierre and Marie Curie |
Agut H.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2011
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a ubiquitous virus inducing a life-long latent infection of its human host. Acute infections (AIs) have been recognized as the cause of severe diseases. These AIs correspond to primary infections (PIs), mainly occurring in young children, endogenous reactivations (ENRs), observed at any age, and putative exogenous reinfections (EXRs). The diagnosis of AIs is now essentially based on the quantification of viral load in bodily fluids and organs by means of real time PCR. However, this diagnosis is currently bothered by the lack of well established viral load thresholds for the different levels of virus replication, the concomitant infection with the two variants HHV-6A and HHV-6B, and the existence, albeit at low frequency, of chromosomal integration of viral DNA. An additional challenge is the difficulty to establish the causality relationship between AI and disease. Although many AIs are asymptomatic or poorly symptomatic with a spontaneous favourable outcome, some have been credited with serious clinical manifestations affecting central nervous system, liver, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and bone marrow. The main favouring factor for such serious diseases is cellular immune deficiency. These severe diseases can be exemplified by encephalitis cases either associated with PI in young children or with ENR, especially in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The antiviral drugs ganciclovir, foscarnet and cidofovir have proven to be efficient against AIs and related diseases but the indications and conditions of their use are not yet formally approved. This emphasizes the need for controlled studies addressing both the clinical impact and therapy of HHV-6 AIs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Michelet L.,University of Monastir |
Michelet L.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere |
Dauga C.,Institute Pasteur Paris
Biological Reviews | Year: 2012
The taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is included in the list of neglected zoonotic diseases by the World Health Organization due to its significant impact on public health in tropical areas. Cysticercosis is still endemic in many regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Long absent in Europe and in other developed countries, cysticercosis has recently re-emerged in the United States and Canada, due to immigration, travel and local transmission. This has encouraged the use of molecular data to understand better the influence of animal and human hosts on the emergence and spread of Taenia species. The increasing number of mitochondrial sequences now available from human tapeworms and recent advances in computational tools has enabled reconstruction of the biogeography and evolutionary history of these organisms. New molecular data have provided insights into the biogeography of T. solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata. A Bayesian statistical framework using variable evolutionary rates from lineage to lineage has allowed an improved timescale analysis of human tapeworms. The dates of divergence obtained were compared to the timing of evolutionary events in the history of their hosts, based on the hypothesis that Taenia spp. and their hosts share a common history. Herein, we review changes in the definitive and secondary hosts and human interactions that underlie the differentiation and evolution of tapeworms. Species diversification of Taenia seems to be closely linked with the evolution of intermediate hosts in response to climatic events during the Pleistocene. Different genotypes of T. solium emerged when European and Asian wild boar Sus spp. populations diverged. Taenia saginata emerged when wild cattle Bos primigenius evolved and when zebu Bos indicus and taurine Bos taurus ancestors separated. Humans through migrations and later with the development of farming and animal husbandry may have had a significant impact on the spread and diversification of tapeworms. Migrations of Homo erectus from Africa to Asia and later of Homo sapiens facilitated the diversification and dispersal of T. solium and T. saginata populations. The development of animal husbandry, making Sus scrofa and Bos taurus preferential intermediate hosts, led to the worldwide distribution of parasites. New molecular data combined with an innovative dating method allow us to explain the ways in which ancient human migrations promoted the emergence and spread of taeniasis and cysticercosis around the world. Another intriguing phenomenon explained better by our approach is the influence of human settlement on the spread of these parasites in recently inhabited areas. The diverse nature of T. solium currently observed in Madagascar may correspond to multiple imports of the parasite during Austronesian migrations, while in Mexico a recent influence of humans during the colonial period is more likely. Human activities, especially food preparation and husbandry methods, remain responsible for the transmission and persistence of these parasites. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Matsuzaki S.,CHU Clermont Ferrand |
Schubert B.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2010
Expression levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a sensitive indicator of DNA damage resulting from oxidative stress, were significantly higher in samples of normal ovarian cortex surrounding endometriotic cysts when compared with ovarian cortex surrounding dermoid and serous ovarian cysts. These findings suggest that the normal ovarian cortex surrounding endometriotic tissues is more severely affected by oxidative stress than ovarian cortex adjacent to other benign ovarian cysts. © 2010 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
Bruckert E.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere |
Rosenbaum D.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere
Current Opinion in Lipidology | Year: 2011
Purpose of review: A healthy diet should be rich in vegetables and fruits, whole-grain, high-fiber foods, and fish and should contain a small amount of saturated and trans fats. In addition to these recommendations, some food ingredients such as plant sterol/stanol soy protein and isoflavones may help reduce cholesterol levels. Increased dietary fiber intakes are associated with significantly lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and lower LDL-cholesterol concentration of about 5-10%. Beyond LDL-cholesterol lowering effects, other benefits have been observed on hypertension, diabetes mellitus. In this review, we summarize the different dietary approaches proven to be associated with LDL-cholesterol decrease. Nutritional interventions that do not exert significant LDL-cholesterol decrease have not been included in this review. Recent findings: On top of a 'classical' step 1 and step 2 diet, the cornerstone of dietary recommendations, recent findings confirm the deleterious effects of trans fatty acid or the beneficial effects of sterols/stanols and nuts. Summary: Dietary recommendations may have an impressive impact on cardiovascular events because they can be implemented early in life and because the sum of the effect on LDL-cholesterol is far from being negligible: step 1 diet (-10%), dietary fibers (-5 to-10%), plant sterols/stanols (-10%), nut consumption (-8%), and soy protein (-3 to-10%). © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Laforet P.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere |
Vianey-Saban C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Neuromuscular Disorders | Year: 2010
Disorders of muscle lipid metabolism may involve intramyocellular triglyceride degradation, carnitine uptake, long-chain fatty acids mitochondrial transport, or fatty acid β-oxidation. Three main diseases leading to permanent muscle weakness are associated with severe increased muscle lipid content (lipid storage myopathies): primary carnitine deficiency, neutral lipid storage disease and multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. A moderate lipidosis may be observed in fatty acid oxidation disorders revealed by rhabdomyolysis episodes such as carnitine palmitoyl transferase II, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiencies, and in recently described phosphatidic acid phosphatase deficiency. Respiratory chain disorders and congenital myasthenic syndromes may also be misdiagnosed as fatty acid oxidation disorders due to the presence of secondary muscle lipidosis. The main biochemical tests giving clues for the diagnosis of these various disorders are measurements of blood carnitine and acylcarnitines, urinary organic acid profile, and search for intracytoplasmic lipid on peripheral blood smear (Jordan's anomaly). Genetic analysis orientated by the results of biochemical investigation allows establishing a firm diagnosis. Primary carnitine deficiency and multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency may be treated after supplementation with carnitine, riboflavine and coenzyme Q10. New therapeutic approaches for fatty acid oxidation disorders are currently developed, based on pharmacological treatment with bezafibrate, and specific diets enriched in medium-chain triglycerides or triheptanoin. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Luyt C.-E.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere
Anesthesiology | Year: 2012
BACKGROUND:: Prognostication in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest is a major clinical challenge. The authors' objective was to determine whether an assessment with diffusion tensor imaging, a brain magnetic resonance imaging sequence, increases the accuracy of 1 yr functional outcome prediction in cardiac arrest survivors. METHODS:: Prospective, observational study in two intensive care units. Fifty-seven comatose survivors of cardiac arrest underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a diffusion tensor imaging value, was measured in predefined white matter regions, and apparent diffusion coefficient was assessed in predefined grey matter regions. Prediction of unfavorable outcome at 1 yr was compared using four prognostic models: FA global, FA selected, apparent diffusion coefficient, and clinical classifiers. RESULTS:: Of the 57 patients included in the study, 49 had an unfavorable outcome at 12 months. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% CI) to predict unfavorable outcome for the FA global, FA selected, clinical, and apparent diffusion coefficient models were 0.92 (0.82-0.98), 0.96 (0.87-0.99), 0.78 (0.65-0.88), and 0.86 (0.74-0.94), respectively. The FA selected model had the best overall accuracy for predicting outcome, with a score above 0.44 having 94% (95% CI, 83-99%) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI, 63-100%) specificity for the prediction of unfavorable outcome. CONCLUSION:: Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging indicates that white matter damage is widespread after cardiac arrest. A prognostic model based on FA values in selected white matter tracts seems to predict accurately 1 yr functional outcome. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in a larger population. © 2012, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.
Bernardeschi D.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere
Neurosurgery | Year: 2015
BACKGROUND:: In neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), multiple therapeutic options are available to prevent bilateral hearing loss that significantly affects the quality of life of patients. OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the morbidity and functional results of internal auditory canal (IAC) decompression in NF2 patients with an only hearing ear. METHODS:: Twenty-one NF2 patients operated on for IAC decompression in a 3-year period with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were included in this retrospective study. They presented unilateral deafness due to previous contralateral vestibular schwannoma removal in 16 patients or contralateral hearing loss due to the tumor in 5 patients. Hearing level was of class A (American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery classification) in 7 patients, B in 8 patients, C in 1 patient, and D in 5 patients. Pure-tone average and speech discrimination score evaluations were performed at 6 days, 1 year, and during the follow-up. Eight patients had postoperative chemotherapy. RESULTS:: No case of facial nerve palsy was observed. In the early postoperative period; all patients maintained the hearing class of the preoperative period. At 1-year follow-up, all but 3 patients maintained their hearing scores; at last follow-up (mean follow-up, 23 ± 8 months; range, 12-44 months), hearing classes remained stable with only 1 patient worsening from class B to C and 1 patient improving from class D to B. CONCLUSION:: Decompression of IAC seems to be a useful procedure for hearing maintenance in NF2 patients, with very low morbidity. Ideal timing and association with chemotherapy should be evaluated in the future. ABBREVIATIONS:: FN, facial nerveIAC, internal auditory canalNF2, neurofibromatosis type 2PTA, pure tone averageSDS, speech discrimination scoreVS, vestibular schwannoma Copyright © by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Rozenberg S.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere
AIDS research and human retroviruses | Year: 2012
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in HIV-infected patients. Bisphosphonates such as alendronate potently inhibit bone resorption and are effective against osteoporosis. The aim of the ANRS 120 Fosivir trial was to evaluate the effect of alendronate on low BMD in HIV-infected patients. HIV-1-infected adults with a t-score≤-2.5 at the lumbar spine and/or total hip, as assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and no other known risk factors for low BMD, were randomized to receive either extended-release alendronate 70 mg weekly or placebo for 96 weeks, with stratification for gender. All the patients also received daily calcium carbonate (500 mg) and vitamin D (400 U). The primary endpoint for efficacy was the percentage change in BMD at the site with a t-score≤-2.5. Forty-four antiretroviral-treated patients (42 men, 2 women) were enrolled. The median age was 45 years, the median CD4 cell count was 422/mm(3), and viral load was <400 copies/ml in 84% of patients. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between the alendronate (n=20) and placebo (n=24) groups. At baseline, 15 patients (75%) in the alendronate group and 17 patients (71%) in the placebo group had a t-score≤-2.5 at the lumbar spine. In the main analysis, BMD at the site with a t-score≤-2.5 increased by 7.1% and 1.0%, respectively, in the alendronate (n=14) and placebo (n=20) groups at week 96 [mean difference, 6.1% (95% CI 2.8 to 9.3); p=0.0003]. Alendronate 70 mg weekly for 96 weeks improves BMD in HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.
Taillibert S.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010
The existence of chemo brain has become almost universally accepted, although many details of the concept are controversial. Data about the different types of cognitive impairment and their duration are not always consistent in the literature. We still do not know which cytotoxic agents are responsible, which characteristics make patients vulnerable and which biologic mechanisms are involved. This chapter reviews the recent literature and provides an actualized definition of chemo brain, including recent functional imaging data and discusses its controversial aspects. Potential underlying mechanisms and their future possible clinical applications in the prevention and treatment of chemo brain are also discussed. These issues are of clinical importance given the prevalence of breast carcinoma, the increased use of chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy, the increasing use of more aggressive dosing schedules and the increasing survival rates. Better-designed future trials should lead to a better definition and understanding of chemo brain and to future therapies. © 2010 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media.
Heron D.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere
Orphanet journal of rare diseases | Year: 2014
PMM2-CDG (formerly known as CDG Ia) a deficiency in phosphomannomutase, is the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation. The phenotype encompasses a wide range of neurological and non-neurological manifestations comprising cerebellar atrophy and intellectual deficiency. The phenotype of the disorder is well characterized in children but the long term course of the disease is unknown and the phenotype of late onset forms has not been comprehensively described. We thus retrospectively collected the clinical, biological and radiological data of 29 French PMM2-CDG patients aged 15 years or more with a proven molecular diagnosis (16 females and 13 males). In addition, thirteen of these patients were reexamined at the time of the study to obtain detailed information. 27 of the 29 patients had a typical PMM2-CDG phenotype, with infantile hypotonia, strabismus, developmental delay followed by intellectual deficiency, epilepsy, retinitis pigmentosa and/or visceral manifestations. The main health problems for these patients as teenagers and in adulthood were primary ovarian insufficiency, growth retardation, coagulation anomalies and thrombotic events, skeletal deformities and osteopenia/osteoporosis, retinitis pigmentosa, as well as peripheral neuropathy. Three patients had never walked and three lost their ability to walk. The two remaining patients had a late-onset phenotype unreported to date. All patients (n = 29) had stable cerebellar atrophy. Our findings are in line with those of previous adult PMM2-CDG cohorts and points to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the follow up of PMM2-CDG patients to prevent late complications. Additionally, our findings add weight to the view that PMM2-CDG may be diagnosed in teenage/adult patients with cerebellar atrophy, even in the absence of intellectual deficiency or non-neurological involvement.