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Symoneaux R.,Groupe ESA | Le Quere J.M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Baron A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bauduin R.,IFPC | Chollet S.,Institute Regional agroalimentaire Charles Viollette 1026
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The impact of carbon dioxide and its interactions with fructose, acidity, polyphenol content and ethanol in model solutions of cider were investigated. Eight samples, with and without CO2 addition, were presented to a trained panel. Four sensory characteristics (bitterness, astringency, sweetness and sourness) were studied. Bitterness was not modified in the presence of CO2 while astringency increased. Sweetness decreased but only for samples with a higher sugar content. Finally, when samples contained gas, the difference in sourness was smaller between the two levels of acidity tested. The results also gave some indication of the way how fructose, acid, polyphenols and ethanol contribute to the sensory characteristics of cider. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Colomb B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Colomb B.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Carof M.,Agrocampus Ouest | Carof M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

Agronomists need methodologies to assess the sustainability of cropping systems. Few models such as MASC have been recently developed for evaluation. The effective use of those models is still a challenge, notably for low-input systems. Here a more specific model entitled MASC-OF was developed and applied to study stockless organic cropping systems. The MASC-OF model is original because it is based on agricultural advisers' needs and expertises. Two groups of advisers supported by agronomic scientists were involved in a nine-step methodology to progress from preliminary meetings to data analysis. The methodology allowed advisers to design a model including their own views on what is a sustainable organic cropping system. Soil fertility and weed and pest control were integrated as a new branch in the original MASC model. We also developed evaluation criteria for each basic attribute, defining aggregation rules and weighting attributes. Tested case studies were based on 44 real cropping systems identified on 19 farms in the Midi-Pyrenees region of France and on 23 cropping system types developed by the advisers from the Centre, Ile-de-France, Pays de Loire, Poitou-Charentes and Rhône-Alpes regions of France. Our results show that a high score of economic sustainability is the most difficult to achieve. This finding is explained by low productivity of cereal crops and high variability of market prices for organic grain. Further, agronomic viability is also difficult to ensure, as a consequence of poor soil-fertility management practices. The ability to achieve social acceptability for the producer, including workload and health risk, is high. By contrast, acceptability for the society has a medium score due to reduced productivity and contribution to local employment. Environmental sustainability is the easiest dimension to achieve, despite nitrogen-loss risks in some situations and high water and energy consumption in irrigated systems. Overall our findings show that the potential for the development of more sustainable organic cropping systems in stockless farms is high. © 2012 INRA and Springer-Verlag France.


Carof M.,Agrocampus Ouest | Carof M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Carof M.,European University of Brittany | Colomb B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Aveline A.,Groupe ESA
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2013

Modern agriculture must meet new challenges such as production of healthy food, adaptation to climate change, protection of natural resources, and conservation of landscape. These challenges require changes in current agricultural systems and therefore, environmentally-friendly agricultural systems must be designed and their sustainability assessed. Over the past several years, various methods have been developed for making such assessments (e.g. the Balancing and Ranking Method, MEACROS, MODAM, the modelling framework of Pacini et al., ROTAT. +. Farm. Images, MASC, and ROTOR) but few studies put forward simple solutions for selecting one method over another. In this paper, we propose a simple guide to distinguish methods one from another. Categories of the guide include the type of systems to assess, the spatial and temporal scales at which systems are assessed, the dimensions of sustainability for which systems are assessed, the type of visualisation for comparing options, the target users, and the ability to generate alternative systems. The guide was developed and tested with a group of farm advisors involved in a three-year project called RotAB, which aimed to assess the sustainability of organic arable farming systems: the advisors looked for a method for sustainability assessment of cropping systems. We presented seven recent assessment methods as well as the guide to advisors. The guide's key points allowed them to clearly express their requirements: the method they looked for had to evaluate cropping systems and helped advisors to propose new ones; it had to evaluate multiple sustainability criteria that are easily understandable by farmers; indicators had to be scientifically based, without the need for many input data; the method had to be easy to use and produced graphical output that can be discussed with farmers. Finally, the guide helped advisors to choose one of the seven methods (in that case they chose MASC). This guide can help decision-makers distinguish assessment tools from one another using simple categories and choose the one best adapted to their expectations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hurtaud C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hurtaud C.,Agrocampus Ouest | Faucon F.,Institute Of Lelevage | Couvreur S.,Groupe ESA | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet on milk fat yield, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, milk fat globule size, and butter properties. Thirty-six Prim'Holstein cows at 104 d in milk were sorted into 3 groups by milk production and milk fat globule size. Three diets were assigned: a total mixed ration (control) consisting of corn silage (70%) and concentrate (30%), or a supplemented ration based on the control ration but where part of the concentrate energy was replaced on a dry matter basis by 2.1% (LIN1) or 4.3% (LIN2) extruded linseed. The increased amounts of extruded linseed linearly decreased milk fat content and milk fat globule size and linearly increased the percentage of milk unsaturated FA, specifically α-linolenic acid and trans FA. Extruded linseed had no significant effect on butter color or on the sensory properties of butters, with only butter texture in the mouth improved. The LIN2 treatment induced a net improvement of milk nutritional properties but also created problems with transforming the cream into butter. The butters obtained were highly spreadable and melt-in-the-mouth, with no pronounced deficiency in taste. The LIN1 treatment appeared to offer a good tradeoff of improved milk FA profile and little effect on butter-making while still offering butters with improved functional properties. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.


Loison A.,University of Burgundy | Symoneaux R.,Groupe ESA | Deneulin P.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland | Thomas-Danguin T.,University of Burgundy | And 3 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

Exemplarity measurements of wines by at least 20 judges are used to estimate the degree of interjudge (dis)agreement and to tell wines apart into two contrasting extremes. Two sets of French red wines - Pinot noir from Burgundy and Cabernet franc from the Loire Valley - are studied separately but by the same approach. Short-listing criteria are used to collate 40 starting-price and middle-range wines for each set differing a priori in olfactory terms. Wine professionals assess their local wines first orthonasally and then, independently, by global evaluation. A pool of descriptive and inferential statistics indicates there is generally neither complete divergence nor real agreement among judges. For Burgundy Pinot noir, the weak agreement observed and measured for orthonasal evaluation strengthens slightly for global evaluation. Contrariwise, for Loire Valley Cabernet franc wines, agreement is poorer for global evaluation than for olfactory evaluation. With orthonasal evaluation, responses are more consistent for Cabernet franc than for Pinot noir, whereas for global evaluation, the levels of interjudge agreement are of the same order for both sets of wines. The subjectivity of sensory responses is interpreted for each situation. The personal judgment of exemplarity (or typicality) may therefore be defined as a demanding cognitive decision varying with the circumstances of the experiment and responding to a process of perceptual categorization based on previous knowledge and on an intuitive comparison between a sample and an abstract but conscious image of the category. Agreement among judges is sufficient to bipolarize the wines. As the power to discriminate among the wines is related to the level of interjudge agreement, bipolarization is most marked for the Cabernet franc wines evaluated by olfactory evaluation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


The right to Adequate Food Supply and Food Sovereignty carry alternative frames of reference against the liberal contents of the national and international policies set up since the end of 1980s (liberalization of the agrarian markets, privatization of means, withdrawal of States). They have recently tended to add protectionist, populist and voluntarist accents to the national and international policies fighting food insecurity in Africa. Beyond the different status of these two concepts, we look at the connection between the ideas, as well as speeches which they produce. Our results rely on a textual analysis of secondary documents and interviews with representatives of French international solidarity organizations present in Africa and international networks hired to advocate food sovereignty. We begin by exploring the Right to Adequate Food Supply and Food Sovereignty and focus on their well differentiated contexts of emergence to underline their present-day relationship as parts of supplementary strategies of influence: the former favours the judicial treatment of the food issue and the second its political treatment. We show that both ideas refer to an actual renovation of food security policy objectives and governance which possibly implies an alternative food system based on a certain level of food autonomy and political regulation of agro-food sectors.


Kuznetsova A.,Technical University of Denmark | Christensen R.H.B.,Technical University of Denmark | Bavay C.,Groupe ESA | Brockhoff P.B.,Technical University of Denmark
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2014

Mixed effects models have become increasingly prominent in sensory and consumer science. Still applying such models may be challenging for a sensory practitioner due the challenges associated with the choosing the random effects, selecting an appropriate model, interpreting the results. In this paper we introduce an approach for automated mixed ANOVA/ANCOVA modeling together with the open source R package lmerTest developed by the authors that can perform automated complex mixed-effects modeling. The package can in an automated way investigate and incorporate the necessary random-effects by sequentially removing non-significant random terms in the mixed model, and similarly test and remove fixed effects. Tables and figures provide an overview of the structure and present post hoc analysis. With this approach, complex error structures can be investigated, identified and incorporated whenever necessary. The package provides type-3 ANOVA output with degrees of freedom corrected F-tests for fixed-effects, which makes the package unique in open source implementations of mixed models. The approach together with the user-friendliness of the package allow to analyze a broad range of mixed effects models in a fast and efficient way. The benefits of the approach and the package are illustrated on four data sets coming from consumer/sensory studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Vallet J.,Agrocampus Ouest | Beaujouan V.,Agrocampus Ouest | Pithon J.,Groupe ESA | Roze F.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | Daniel H.,Agrocampus Ouest
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010

The increasing rate of urban sprawl continues to fragment European landscapes threatening the persistence of native woodland plant communities. The dynamics of woodland edges depend on the characteristics of woodland patches and also on landscape context. Our aim was to assess the extent of edge influences on the understorey vegetation of small native woodlands in rural and urban landscapes. The study was carried out in two cities of north-western France. Ten comparable woodlands, each of about 1.5 ha, were surveyed; five were situated adjacent to crops and five adjacent to built-up land. Vascular plant species were recorded in 420 3 × 3 m plots placed at seven different distances from the edge (from 0 to about 45 m from the edge). Soil pH, light levels, level of disturbance and tree and shrub cover were also recorded. Plant species were first classified as non-indigenous or indigenous and then three groups of indigenous species were distinguished according to their affinity for forest habitat (forest specialists, forest generalists and non-forest species). We inferred certain ecological characteristics of understorey vegetation by using Ellenberg values. An inter-class correspondence analysis was carried out to detect patterns of variation in plant community composition. Linear mixed models were used to test the effects of adjacent land use, distance from the edge and their interactions on the species richness of the different groups and on the ecological characteristics of vegetation. Total species richness, richness of forest generalists and of non-forest species decreased from edge to interior in both urban and rural woodlands. The number of non-indigenous species depended mainly on urban-rural landscape context. Urban woodland edges were not as rich in forest specialists as rural edges. More surprisingly, the number of forest specialists was higher in rural edges than in rural interiors. Community composition was mainly affected by urban-rural context and to a lesser degree by the edge effect: the community composition of urban edges resembled that of urban interiors whereas in rural woodlands vegetation near edges (up to 10 m) strongly differed from interiors with a pool of species specific to edges. Urban woodland vegetation was more nitrophilous than rural vegetation in both edges and interiors. A major difference between urban and rural vegetation was the distribution of basiphilous species according to distance from the edge. Generally edge vegetation was more basiphilous than interior vegetation however the presence of basiphilous species fell off quickly with distance from the edge in rural woodlands (in the first 10-15 m) and more slowly (from 25 m onwards) in urban woodlands. This pattern was linked to variation in measured soil pH. As regards the conservation of flora in small native woodlands, it appeared that invasion of exotic and non-forest species was currently limited in both urban and rural landscape contexts but might pose problems in the future, especially in urban woodlands. Forest species were not negatively affected by the edge effect and indeed edges seemed to provide important habitats for this group. Hence conservationists should pay particular attention to the protection of edges in urban woodlands. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Symoneaux R.,Groupe ESA | Chollet S.,Lille Catholic University | Patron C.,Groupe ESA | Bauduin R.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

A large experimental design containing 72 cider-like model solutions was developed in order to evaluate the impact of apple procyanidins, fructose, acid content and ethanol on four sensory attributes: bitterness, astringency, sweetness and sourness. Based on cider composition, this work investigated the linear and quadratic effects of these four quantitative factors and the interactions between them. The results underline the role of procyanidin content (procyanidin profile and concentration) in cider, which highly impacts bitterness and astringency but also affects sweetness and sourness. Using an external validation based on a sensory evaluation by cider professionals, one predictive model for each sensory attribute is proposed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Symoneaux R.,Groupe ESA | Guichard H.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | Le Quere J.-M.,Reactivity | Baron A.,Reactivity | Chollet S.,Institute Regional Agroalimentaire Charles Viollette 1026
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

The objective of this work was to evaluate whether aroma-taste interactions could occur in cider due to cognitive interactions such as a dumping effect or a congruency phenomenon. Sixteen French ciders were selected with different organoleptic characteristics. Three different tasting conditions were compared in order to evaluate the presence of aroma interactions with taste. A trained panel was first asked to assess ciders, with and without a nose clip, on four attributes: sweetness, sourness, bitterness and astringency. Secondly, they had to score the same four attributes with seven aroma attributes added. It was shown that the perception of sweetness and astringency was modified in the presence of aroma. Ciders with fruity and caramel aromatic notes were perceived sweeter contrary to ciders with hay, animal and earthy notes, which were perceived less sweet. Moreover, the aroma interaction with sweetness was sugar concentration-dependent. It occurred only in cider containing around 40. g/L of sugar. Finally, ciders were perceived more astringent when tasted without wearing a nose clip. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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