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Li R.,Group Research and Development Center
Dianli Xitong Baohu yu Kongzhi/Power System Protection and Control | Year: 2016

The common problem of distributed generation and microgrid accessing to distribution network is analyzed. Photovoltaic generation, wind generation, energy storage devices and electric cars are considered as random power supply. From special design for application scene, power matching for engineering application, external interface terminal, two-level and three-level topology, abnormal over voltage response, monitoring control and operation and maintenance, grid-connected and island protection, capacity penetration and generating capacity penetration and so on, the problem of random power supply accessing to distribution network is analyzed, cloud-layer-terminal three-layer architecture of plug and play random power supply is put forward. It achieves the goals of cloud-operation and maintenance plug and play, layer-orderly control plug and play, terminal-application scene, power matching for engineering application, grid security, information interconnection and maximum generating capacity penetration plug and play. © 2016, Power System Protection and Control Press. All right reserved. Source


Cai L.-N.,Dalian University of Technology | Guo Y.,Dalian University of Technology | Lu A.-H.,Dalian University of Technology | Branton P.,Group Research and Development Center | Li W.-C.,Dalian University of Technology
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical | Year: 2012

Copper manganese oxides (CMOs) were synthesized using a co-precipitation method with different precursors and precipitants for carbon monoxide oxidation. The as-synthesized catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), low temperature N 2 sorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), H 2-temperature programmed reduction (H 2-TPR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Their catalytic activities for CO oxidation were tested by temperature programmed reaction. The results showed that the activity of CO oxidation strongly depended on the combination of precipitant and precursor anions, ranking in the order (Ac - + CO 3 2-) > (NO 3 - + CO 3 2-) > (Ac - + OH -) > (NO 3 - + OH -). The crystalline phase of copper manganese oxides obtained using strong electrolyte (OH -) as the precipitant were mainly spinel Cu 1.5Mn 1.5O 4, while the catalysts prepared with weak electrolyte (CO 3 2-) as the precipitant mostly comprised of MnCO 3, Mn 2O 3 and CuO, and showed a much higher CO oxidation activity than that of the Cu 1.5Mn 1.5O 4. Keeping the same precipitant while changing the precursor caused a change in the H 2 consumption which influenced the CO oxidation activity. A suitable combination of precipitant and precursor resulted in the most efficient CO oxidation catalyst. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Busch C.,University of Rostock | Streibel T.,University of Rostock | Streibel T.,Ecological Systems | Liu C.,Group Research and Development Center | And 3 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

A coupling between a cigarette smoking simulator and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer was constructed to allow investigation of tobacco smoke formation under simulated burning conditions. The cigarette smoking simulator is designed to burn a sample in close approximation to the conditions experienced by a lit cigarette. The apparatus also permits conditions outside those of normal cigarette burning to be investigated for mechanistic understanding purposes. It allows control of parameters such as smouldering and puff temperatures, as well as combustion rate and puffing volume. In this study, the system enabled examination of the effects of "smoking" a cigarette under a nitrogen atmosphere. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with a soft ionisation technique is expedient to analyse complex mixtures such as tobacco smoke with a high time resolution. The objective of the study was to separate pyrolysis from combustion processes to reveal the formation mechanism of several selected toxicants. A purposely designed adapter, with no measurable dead volume or memory effects, enables the analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases from tobacco and tobacco products (e.g. 3R4F reference cigarette) with minimum aging. The combined system demonstrates clear distinctions between smoke composition found under air and nitrogen smoking atmospheres based on the corresponding mass spectra and visualisations using principal component analysis. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source


Liu C.,Group Research and Development Center | DeGrandpre Y.,Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd | Porter A.,3515 Connaught | Griffiths A.,Group Research and Development Center | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

The US Institute of Medicine has encouraged the pursuit and development of potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs) - tobacco products that substantially reduce exposure to one or more tobacco toxicants and can reasonably be expected to reduce the risk of one or more specific diseases or other adverse health effects. One potential approach is to reduce levels of some smoke toxicant precursors, such as proteins and polyphenols, in tobacco. We describe a treatment process involving aqueous tobacco extraction and treatment with protease; filtration of the extract to remove peptides, amino acids and polyphenols, and recombination of extract and treated tobacco. The process reduced levels of protein nitrogen (59%), polyphenols (33-78%) and nicotine (12%) while sugars increased 16%. ISO mainstream smoke yields of 43 toxicants were measured from cigarettes containing treated tobaccos; lower yields of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide (16-20%), acrylonitrile, ammonia, aromatic amines, pyridine, quinolene and hydrogen cyanide (33-51%), tobacco specific nitrosamines (25-32%); phenolics (24-56%), benzene (16%), toluene (25%) and cadmium (34%) were obtained. There were significantly increased yields of formaldehyde (49%) and isoprene (17%). Reductions in sidestream yields of nitrogenous smoke toxicants and increases in sidestream yields of several carbonyls, benzo(a)pyrene and isoprene were also observed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Tian Y.,Group Research and Development Center | Meng S.,State Grid Corporation of China | Zou X.,Group Research and Development Center | Lu Z.,Group Research and Development Center | Wang W.,Group Research and Development Center
Dianli Xitong Baohu yu Kongzhi/Power System Protection and Control | Year: 2015

This paper proposes a hierarchical structure of the island micro grid communication network based on analyzing business requirements of island of micro power grid protection and control management system, and researching intelligent substation, intelligent distribution network, and grid-connected type micro power grid communication architecture scheme. Hierarchical structure of the island of micro power grid communication network is composed of three-level communications network, which is the "up" to the master station communication network, two-layer communication network in micro power grid, and the "down" to link with power distribution network. Taking the first megawatt demonstration project - Nanji island micro power grid as an example, this paper introduces the island micro grid system structure and the protection control and management system, gives the hierarchical structure of island micro grid communication network architecture, composition, and configuration principle, and introduces the engineering application instances. ©, 2015, Power System Protection and Control Press. All right reserved. Source

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