Group of Genetics

Pontevedra, Spain

Group of Genetics

Pontevedra, Spain
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PubMed | Group of Genetics, Ain Shams University and CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2016

Phenolic compounds are proving to be increasingly important for human health and in crop development, defense and adaptation. In spite of the economical importance of Brassica crops in agriculture, the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds presents in these species remain unknown. The genetic and metabolic basis of phenolics accumulation was dissected through analysis of total phenolics concentration and its individual components in leaves, flower buds, and seeds of a double haploid (DH) mapping population of Brassica oleracea. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) that had an effect on phenolics concentration in each organ were integrated, resulting in 33 consensus QTLs controlling phenolics traits. Most of the studied compounds had organ-specific genomic regulation. Moreover, this information allowed us to propose candidate genes and to predict the function of genes underlying the QTL. A number of previously unknown potential regulatory regions involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were identified and this study illustrates how plant ontogeny can affect a biochemical pathway.


Novio S.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Cartea M.E.,Group of Genetics | Soengas P.,Group of Genetics | Freire-Garabal M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Nunez-Iglesias M.J.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Molecules | Year: 2016

Despite the major progress made in the field of cancer biology, cancer is still one of the leading causes of mortality, and prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most encountered malignancies among men. The effective management of this disease requires developing better anticancer agents with greater efficacy and fewer side effects. Nature is a large source for the development of chemotherapeutic agents, with more than 50% of current anticancer drugs being of natural origin. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are degradation products from glucosinolates that are present in members of the family Brassicaceae. Although they are known for a variety of therapeutic effects, including antioxidant, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial properties, nowadays, cell line and animal studies have additionally indicated the chemopreventive action without causing toxic side effects of ITCs. In this way, they can induce cell cycle arrest, activate apoptosis pathways, increase the sensitivity of resistant PCa to available chemodrugs, modulate epigenetic changes and downregulate activated signaling pathways, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation, progression and invasion-metastasis. The present review summarizes the chemopreventive role of ITCs with a particular emphasis on specific molecular targets and epigenetic alterations in in vitro and in vivo cancer animal models. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI.


Sotelo T.,Group of Genetics | Velasco P.,Group of Genetics | Soengas P.,Group of Genetics | Rodriguez V.M.,Group of Genetics | Cartea M.E.,Group of Genetics
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Modification of the content of secondary metabolites opens the possibility of obtaining vegetables enriched in these compounds related to plant defense and human health. We report the first results of a divergent selection for glucosinolate (GSL) content of the three major GSL in leaves: sinigrin (SIN), glucoiberin (GIB), and glucobrassicin (GBS) in order to develop six kale genotypes (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with high (HSIN, HIGIB, HGBS) and low (LSIN, LGIB, LGBS) content. The aims were to determine if the three divergent selections were successful in leaves, how each divergent selection affected the content of the same GSLs in flower buds and seeds and to determine which genes would be involved in the modification of the content of the three GSL studied. The content of SIN and GIB after three cycles of divergent selection increased 52.5% and 77.68%, and decreased 51.9% and 45.33%, respectively. The divergent selection for GBS content was only successful and significant for decreasing the concentration, with a reduction of 39.04%. Mass selection is an efficient way of modifying the concentration of individual GSLs. Divergent selections realized in leaves had a side effect in the GSL contents of flower buds and seeds due to the novo synthesis in these organs and/or translocation from leaves. The results obtained suggest that modification in the SIN and GIB concentration by selection is related to the GSL-ALK locus. We suggest that this locus could be related with the indirect response found in the GBS concentration. Meantime, variations in the CYP81F2 gene expression could be the responsible of the variations in GBS content. The genotypes obtained in this study can be used as valuable materials for undertaking basic studies about the biological effects of the major GSLs present in kales. © 2016 Sotelo, Velasco, Soengas, Rodríguez and Cartea.


Santolamazza-Carbone S.,Group of Genetics | Sotelo T.,Group of Genetics | Velasco P.,Group of Genetics | Cartea M.E.,Group of Genetics
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2016

Glucosinolates may deter generalist insect feeding as their toxicity causes fitness damage, whereas insects specialized in brassicaceous plants may circumvent the toxic effect. By using no-choice leaf tests, we investigated whether larval development time, body weight, mortality and feeding rate of the generalist Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) and the specialist Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), were affected by six genotypes of Brassica oleracea var. acephala, selected for having high or low concentration of sinigrin, glucoiberin (aliphatics) and glucobrassicin (indole). Two phenological plant stages were used. On young plants, M. brassicae most consumed the high sinigrin and low glucoiberin genotypes. Larvae weighed more on the high sinigrin plants. Development time took longer on the low glucoiberin genotype. On mature plants, consumption rate decreased on the high glucoiberin genotype. Larval weight decreased on the high sinigrin, glucoiberin and glucobrassicin genotypes, and development time increased with high glucobrassicin concentration. Pupal weight and mortality rate increased on mature plants, irrespective of the genotype. Pieris rapae fed most on young plants with high sinigrin, and larval weight increased on the high glucoiberin genotype. Mortality increased with low glucoiberin and low glucobrassicin. On mature plants, larval weight decreased with high sinigrin and glucoiberin. The high glucoiberin genotype was the less consumed and also induced a longer development time. High content of aliphatic glucosinolates offered mature plants significant antibiosis defence against both the lepidopterans, whereas the indole glucosinolate was marginally effective. Young plants were more consumed and increased larval weight likely because glucosinolate concentration was still not optimal. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sotelo T.,Group of Genetics | Lema M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Soengas P.,Group of Genetics | Cartea M.E.,Group of Genetics | Velasco P.,Group of Genetics
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2015

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites found in Brassica vegetables that confer on them resistance against pests and diseases. Both GSLs and glucosinolate hydrolysis products (GHPs) have shown positive effects in reducing soil pathogens. Information about their in vitro biocide effects is scarce, but previous studies have shown sinigrin GSLs and their associated allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) to be soil biocides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biocide effects of 17 GSLs and GHPs and of leaf methanolic extracts of different GSL-enriched Brassica crops on suppressing in vitro growth of two bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola) and two fungal (Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia scletoriorum) Brassica pathogens. GSLs, GHPs, and methanolic leaf extracts inhibited the development of the pathogens tested compared to the control, and the effect was dose dependent. Furthermore, the biocide effects of the different compounds studied were dependent on the species and race of the pathogen. These results indicate that GSLs and their GHPs, as well as extracts of different Brassica species, have potential to inhibit pathogen growth and offer new opportunities to study the use of Brassica crops in biofumigation for the control of multiple diseases. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.


Rodriguez V.M.,Group of Genetics | Soengas P.,Group of Genetics | Cartea E.,Group of Genetics | Sotelo T.,Group of Genetics | Velasco P.,Group of Genetics
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2014

Statistical models predict that global warming will have a negative impact in crop yields in the next decades. Especially vulnerable are winter crops such as kales or cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.). We evaluated the impact of high temperatures in morphological and biochemical traits of a B. oleracea core collection during early development. When grown at 30 °C, plants showed a reduction in chlorophyll content, early vigour and biomass compared with values observed on plants grown at 20 °C. Likewise, the total content of glucosinolates shows a reduction at high temperatures. The alboglabra group showed the best general performance at 30 °C for both morphological traits and glucosinolate content. Based on a cluster analysis, we selected four populations (MBG0072, MBG0464, MBG0535 and HRIGRU5555) as the most promising to be used in further breeding programs for heat tolerance. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | Group of Genetics and University of Santiago de Compostela
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Despite the major progress made in the field of cancer biology, cancer is still one of the leading causes of mortality, and prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most encountered malignancies among men. The effective management of this disease requires developing better anticancer agents with greater efficacy and fewer side effects. Nature is a large source for the development of chemotherapeutic agents, with more than 50% of current anticancer drugs being of natural origin. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are degradation products from glucosinolates that are present in members of the family Brassicaceae. Although they are known for a variety of therapeutic effects, including antioxidant, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial properties, nowadays, cell line and animal studies have additionally indicated the chemopreventive action without causing toxic side effects of ITCs. In this way, they can induce cell cycle arrest, activate apoptosis pathways, increase the sensitivity of resistant PCa to available chemodrugs, modulate epigenetic changes and downregulate activated signaling pathways, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation, progression and invasion-metastasis. The present review summarizes the chemopreventive role of ITCs with a particular emphasis on specific molecular targets and epigenetic alterations in in vitro and in vivo cancer animal models.


PubMed | Group of Genetics
Type: | Journal: Current issues in molecular biology | Year: 2016

Understanding plants defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various omics technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in omic tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.


PubMed | Group of Genetics and University of Santiago de Compostela
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology | Year: 2014

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites found in Brassica vegetables that confer on them resistance against pests and diseases. Both GSLs and glucosinolate hydrolysis products (GHPs) have shown positive effects in reducing soil pathogens. Information about their in vitro biocide effects is scarce, but previous studies have shown sinigrin GSLs and their associated allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) to be soil biocides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biocide effects of 17 GSLs and GHPs and of leaf methanolic extracts of different GSL-enriched Brassica crops on suppressing in vitro growth of two bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola) and two fungal (Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia scletoriorum) Brassica pathogens. GSLs, GHPs, and methanolic leaf extracts inhibited the development of the pathogens tested compared to the control, and the effect was dose dependent. Furthermore, the biocide effects of the different compounds studied were dependent on the species and race of the pathogen. These results indicate that GSLs and their GHPs, as well as extracts of different Brassica species, have potential to inhibit pathogen growth and offer new opportunities to study the use of Brassica crops in biofumigation for the control of multiple diseases.


PubMed | Group of Viticulture and Group of Genetics
Type: | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2015

Due to its biennual life cycle Brassica oleracea is especially exposed to seasonal changes in temperature that could limit its growth and fitness. Thermal stress could limit plant growth, leaf development and photosynthesis. We evaluated the performance of two local populations of B. oleracea: one population of cabbage (B. oleracea capitata group) and one population of kale (B. oleracea acephala group) under limiting low and high temperatures.There were differences between crops and how they responded to high and low temperature stress. Low temperatures especially affect photosynthesis and fresh weight. Stomatal conductance and the leaf water content were dramatically reduced and plants produce smaller and thicker leaves. Under high temperatures there was a reduction of the weight that could be associated to a general impairment of the photosynthetic activity.Although high temperatures significantly reduced the dry weight of seedlings, in general terms, low temperature had a higher impact in B. oleracea physiology than high temperature. Interestingly, our results suggest that the capitata population is less sensitive to changes in air temperature than the acephala population.

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