Rohner F.,GroundWork |
Zimmermann M.,ETH Zurich |
Zimmermann M.,A+ Network |
Jooste P.,North West University South Africa |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014
The objective of the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is to provide state-of-the-art information and service with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect. Specifically, the BOND project seeks to develop consensus on accurate assessment methodologies that are applicable to researchers (laboratory/clinical/surveillance), clinicians, programmers, and policy makers (data consumers). The BOND project is also intended to develop targeted research agendas to support the discovery and development of biomarkers through improved understanding of nutrient biology within relevant biologic systems. In phase I of the BOND project, 6 nutrients (iodine, vitamin A, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12) were selected for their high public health importance because they typify the challenges faced by users in the selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers. For each nutrient, an expert panel was constituted and charged with the development of a comprehensive review covering the respective nutrient's biology, existing biomarkers, and specific issues of use with particular reference to the needs of the individual user groups. In addition to the publication of these reviews, materials from each will be extracted to support the BOND interactive Web site (http://www.nichd.nih.gov/global_nutrition/programs/bond/pages/index.aspx). This review represents the first in the series of reviews and covers all relevant aspects of iodine biology and biomarkers. The article is organized to provide the readerwith a full appreciation of iodine's background history as a public health issue, its biology, and an overview of available biomarkers and specific considerations for the use and interpretation of iodine biomarkers across a range of clinical and population-based uses. The review also includes a detailed research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of iodine biology and assessment. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Food and nutrition bulletin | Year: 2013
The prevalence of stunting, underweight, and micronutrient deficiencies are persistently high in young children in the Philippines, and among other factors, suboptimal infant and young child feeding behavior may contribute to these forms of malnutrition. To improve the understanding of contributors associated with the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age living in urban areas of the Philippines. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering five urban centers in the Philippines. Data on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status (including wasting, stunting, underweight, anemia, iron deficiency, and vitamin A deficiency) were collected for 1,784 children. Among children from urban and predominantly poor and very poor households, 26% were stunted, 18% were underweight, and 5% were wasted. Forty-two percent were anemic, 28% were iron deficient, and 3% were vitamin A deficient. About half of the children were breastfed within an hour after birth, were breastfed at the time of the survey, and had been continuously breastfed up to 1 year of age. Of the factors investigated, low socioeconomic status, use of cheaper cooking fuel, and nonuse of multivitamins were all independently associated with stunting. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and vitamin A deficiency were independently associated with the same factors and poorer sanitation facilities, lower maternal education, current unemployment, and inflammation. These factors merit attention in future programming and interventions may include promotion of the timely introduction of appropriate fortified complementary foods, the use of affordable multiple micronutrient preparations, and measures to reduce infections.
Petry N.,ETH Zurich |
Petry N.,GroundWork |
Egli I.,ETH Zurich |
Gahutu J.B.,University of Rwanda |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014
Background: The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. Objective: The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Methods: Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ;50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. Results: The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P < 0.001). The quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals (406 mg) was 19% higher (P < 0.05) than that from the control bean meals. With ;50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 mg, respectively, which was 37% (P < 0.005) and 51% (P < 0.0001) higher than from the control bean meals. Conclusions: PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Brockett B.F.T.,University of British Columbia |
Brockett B.F.T.,GroundWork |
Prescott C.E.,University of British Columbia |
Grayston S.J.,University of British Columbia
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012
Although soil microorganisms play a central role in the soil processes that determine nutrient availability and productivity of forest ecosystems, we are only beginning to understand how microbial communities are shaped by environmental factors and how the structure and function of soil microbial communities in turn influence rates of key soil processes. Here we compare the structure and function of soil microbial communities in seven mature, undisturbed forest types across a range of regional climates in British Columbia and Alberta, and examine the variation in community composition within forest types. We collected the forest floor fermentation (F) and humus (H) layers and upper 10 cm of mineral soil at 3 sites in each of seven forest types (corresponding to seven Biogeoclimatic zones) in both spring and summer. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis was used to investigate the structure of soil microbial communities and total soil microbial biomass; potential activities of extra-cellular enzymes indicated the functional potential of the soil microbial community in each layer at each site.Multivariate analysis indicated that both structure and enzyme activities of soil microbial communities differed among the forest types, and significantly separated along the regional climate gradient, despite high local variation. Soil moisture and organic matter contents were most closely related to microbial community characteristics. Forests in the Ponderosa Pine and Mountain Hemlock zones were distinct from other forests and from each other when comparing potential enzyme activities and had the most extreme moisture and temperature values. Forest floors from the hot and dry Ponderosa Pine forests were associated with enzymes characteristic of water-stress and high concentrations of phenols and other recalcitrant compounds. The wet and cold Mountain Hemlock forests were associated with low enzyme activity.An influence of tree species was apparent at the three sites within the Coastal Western Hemlock zone; high bacterial:fungal biomass ratios were found under western redcedar (Thuja plicata) which also had high pH and base-cation levels, and under Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), which had high N availability. Potential activities enzymes differed among soil layers: potential activities of phenol oxidase and peroxidase were highest in mineral soil, whereas phosphatase, betaglucosidase, NAGase, sulfatase, xylosidase and cellobiohydrolase were highest in the forest floors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
GroundWork | Date: 2016-04-20
Software module connecting a leading server, network and storage virtualization managers to the overall software monitor; module designed to continuously collect performance metrics from products for insertion into overall database.