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Pavelic P.,International Water Management Institute | Patankar U.,Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency | Acharya S.,International Water Management Institute | Jella K.,International Water Management Institute | Gumma M.K.,International Rice Research Institute
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2012

The basaltic aquifers of the Upper Bhima River Basin in India are highly utilized for irrigation but the sustainability of groundwater withdrawals and the agricultural production systems they support is largely unknown. Here we used hydrogeological data, supported by secondary data, to assess the effects of water scarcity over a decade-long period (1998-2007) on the groundwater resources at the regional basin scale. This reveals no evidence of systematic declines in total groundwater availability over the period; only shorter-term losses/gains in storage associated with successive dry/wet years. The clearest indicator of stress comes from the more widespread drying out of wells following lower rainfall years throughout the basin and especially in upland areas where aquifers are least developed and most easily drained. Groundwater in the basin offers an adaptive mechanism to climate variability to some degree, but the buffering capacity is constrained by low aquifer storativity and average residence times of just a few years. Around 40% of the basin is currently at a level of development that is of concern, and the number of irrigation wells is growing rapidly. However recent evidence of conversion from high to low water use crops indicates the adaptive capacity of farmers to water-related stresses. Surplus surface water flows may provide opportunities to enhance groundwater recharge but requires careful trade-off analysis of the downstream impacts. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Keesari T.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Kulkarni U.P.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Jaryal A.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Mendhekar G.N.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2014

This paper presents application of a radiotracer technique in coastal groundwater for assessing the aquifer dynamics, which is very crucial for understanding flow conditions of an aquifer and its vulnerability to salinity and other contamination. Groundwater dynamics in shallow and deep zones of Palghar Taluk located in west coast of Thane district were studied using point dilution method. 82Br in the form of NH4Br solution was used as the radiotracer and loggings were carried out by NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. From the analysis of the radiotracer activity loggings, it is found that shallow groundwater is relatively dynamic as compared to deeper groundwater at the two studied sites. The groundwater velocity is about 40-50 cm/day in the shallow zone while it is in the range of 4-40 cm/day in the deep zone. High salinity in deeper parts could be due to seawater intrusion through fractured basalt, which is diluted/flushed in the shallow zone by rain and river water. These findings are helpful in assessing groundwater dynamics in shallow and deep zones of this region and also on the impact of pumping activity on groundwater dynamics. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó.


Gupta G.,Indian Institute of Geomagnetism | Patil S.N.,North Maharashtra University | Padmane S.T.,North Maharashtra University | Padmane S.T.,Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2015

Suki river basin of Raver sub-division is located towards the northeastern part of Jalgaon district in Maharashtra State. The existing land use pattern of the region clearly shows that more than 60% of the area is utilized for agricultural sector. Groundwater is the major source of irrigation and domestic purposes. To assess the overall water resources development of Raver area for better environment in future, investigation was carried out with the help of geophysical indicators. Vertical electrical sounding studies were conducted at 17 stations in the study area usingWenner configuration. The study was aimed at characterizing the aquifer in the area as well as assessing its potential risk to contaminant seepage in terms of protective capacity of the overburden rock materials using Dar-Zarrouk (D-Z) parameters, viz., the transverse resistance (T), longitudinal conductance (S), transverse resistivity (ρt) and longitudinal resistivity (ρl). These were computed to generate the resistivity regime of freshwater-bearing formations and its movement. The central-western part of the study area reflects very good to good protective capacity rating as can be seen from the high longitudinal conductance values. The low value of the protective capacity in the eastern part is making the aquifer system in the area highly vulnerable to surface contamination. This indicates that the ground water quality may have been deteriorated in the area and borehole water samples should be randomly sampled for contaminant loads based on this analysis. © Indian Academy of Sciences.


The management of groundwater poses challenges in basaltic terrain as its availability is not uniform due to the absence of primary porosity. Indiscriminate excessive withdrawal from shallow as well as deep aquifers for meeting increased demand can be higher than natural recharge, causing imbalance in demand and supply and leading to a scarcity condition. An innovative artificial recharge system has been conceived and implemented to augment the groundwater sources at the villages of Saoli and Sastabad in Wardha district of Maharashtra, India. The scheme involves resectioning of a stream bed to achieve a reverse gradient, building a subsurface dam to arrest subsurface flow, and installation of recharge shafts to recharge the deeper aquifers. The paper focuses on analysis of hydrogeological parameters like porosity, specific yield and transmissivity, and on temporal groundwater status. Results indicate that after the construction of the artificial recharge system, a rise of 0.8–2.8 m was recorded in the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater levels in 12 dug wells in the study area; an increase in the yield was also noticed which solved the drinking water and irrigation problems. Spatial analysis was performed using a geographic information system to demarcate the area of influence of the recharge system due to increase in yields of the wells. The study demonstrates efficacy, technical viability and applicability of an innovative artificial recharge system constructed in an area of basaltic terrain prone to water scarcity. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Varade A.M.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University | Khare Y.D.,Maharashtra Remote Sensing Application Agency MRSAC | Mondal N.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Muley S.,Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

The paper deals with the application of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) technique for a watershed development program. For this study, the WRJ-2 watershed falling under Narkhed and Katol Tahsils of Nagpur district, Maharashtra, India is investigated. Various thematic maps (i.e. drainage, geology, soil, geomorphology and land use/ land cover) have been prepared using the remote sensing and GIS techniques. Initially, differential weightage values are assigned to all the thematic maps as per their runoff characteristics. Subsequently, the maps are integrated in GIS environment to identify potential sites for water conservation measures like gully plugs, earthen check dams, continuous contour trenches, percolation tanks, cement bandhara, afforestration and farm ponds, etc. The study depicts that the GIS technique facilitates integration of thematic maps and thereby helps in an identification of micro-zones each with unique characters in-terms of hydrogeology, thus amenable to specific water conservation techniques. It is therefore concluded that, the GIS technique is suitable for an identification of water conservation structures. © 2012 Indian Society of Remote Sensing.


Murkute Y.A.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University | Badhan P.P.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University | Badhan P.P.,Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2011

The ground water quality from Bhadravati tehsil has been assessed and results are presented in the paper. Atotal of 46 samples were collected out of which 23 samples represent shallow aquifers while remaining 23 samples correspond to deeper aquifers. The fluoride concentration varies from 1.0 to 4.4 mg/L in phreatic aquifers and from 0.5 to 2.9 mg/L in deeper aquifers. The present investigation indicates that the fluoride concentration is higher in shallow aquifers than in deeper aquifers. This may be ascribed to leaching of fluoride in to groundwater from weathered zone. The physicochemical conditions like decomposition, dissociation as well as subsequent dissolution are also responsible for leaching of fluoride, though with limited residence time. The inhabitants consuming the fluoride contaminated water are suffering from different types of fluorosis.


Murkute Y.A.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University | Badhan P.P.,Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2011

The groundwater quality from the watersheds PGK1, PGK3 and PGK4, Yavatmal District (Maharashtra). Central India, has been assessed and results are presented in the paper. Fifty samples collected from deeperaquifers have been analysed forvarious parameters like pH, EC, TDS, C ++, Mg ++, Na +, K +, HCO 3 - CO 3 -2, CI -, SO 4 -2, and F -. The interrelationship between F - with pH, Na +, SO 4 -2, and CI - has resulted into positive correlation, while inverse relationship is noted for Ca ++ and HCO 3 -. In the area of study, the F - content ranges from 0.2 to 15.6 mg/L, and 64% of groundwater samples from deeper aquifer have F - concentration more than 1.0 mg/L. The higher concentration of F - in Neoproterozoic limestones has been ascribed to the presence of fluoride bearing minerals like fluorite and apatite. In such limestones of chemical origin, co-precipitation of CaF 2 and CaCO 3, is the major process which controls the fluorine distribution in the rocks. The leaching of F - containing minerals from the weathered zone to deeper depth has contributed the high F - concentration in basaltic aquifers. Amongst the analysed samples, 58% of groundwater is suitable for irrigation.


Duraiswami R.A.,University of Pune | Patankar U.,Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2011

High fluoride content in the groundwater is reported from parts of the Gad River Basin, Sindhudurg district, coastal Maharashtra, India. The fluoride content of up to 5 mg/l has been found in the groundwater in laterite, basalt and the Precambrian basement (gneiss) aquifers in the region. The presence of high fluoride in groundwater well above the permissible levels for consumption poses a serious health threat to the rural populace in the region. The presence of tourmaline bearing pegmatites in the Precambrian basement is considered as a potential fluorine source. Deep circulation of fluoride rich groundwater between the latetritised basalts and the underlying crystalline basement could be responsible for the occurrence of fluoride in both the shallow and deeper aquifers of the region. © 2011 Geological Society of India.


Shaikh M.A.J.,Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency | Birajdar F.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Proceedings - International Conference on Technologies for Sustainable Development, ICTSD 2015 | Year: 2015

The assessment stage is one of the first elements of effective water resources management. A miniwatershed-based assessment provides an evaluation of conditions and trends in the watershed in a larger scale. It assists in the development, prioritization, and execution of an overall watershed management program. The increased use of groundwater is showing negative impact on the availability of groundwater. The groundwater exploitation is surpassing the recharge to fulfill the demands of stakeholders. Therefore, the assessment of groundwater potential to tap the groundwater and suitable artificial recharge structures to increase the groundwater recharge is significant. MR-12 watershed comprises two miniwatersheds that are overexploited and groundwater occurred in unconfined / semi confined shallow aquifer. In the present study, the artificial recharge structures were propose to fulfill the demand of groundwater and to increase the availability of groundwater in sustained way. The detailed hydrogeological surveys carried out for assessment of the groundwater. The overlay analyses of geomorphology and drainage layer carried out by using GIS platform for identification of suitable sites for artificial recharge structures. The present study reports that, the integrated remote sensing and GIS techniques are the most suitable method for groundwater assessment and feasibility of artificial recharge zone in basaltic terrain. © 2015 IEEE.

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