Groundnut Research

Jūnāgadh, India

Groundnut Research

Jūnāgadh, India
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Meena H.N.,Groundnut Research | Bhalodia P.K.,Groundnut Research | Jat R.S.,Groundnut Research | Jat R.S.,Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research | Vekaria L.C.,Groundnut Research
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2012

A field experiment was conducted at Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh (Gujarat) during crop years 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, to evaluate the performance of groundnut {Arachis hypogaea L.)-pearlmillet {Pennisetum glaucum (L.) cropping system in calcareous saline black clay soil (Vertisol) using water varying in salinity levels. The experiment was conducted on a fixed site. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replication where four salinity levels of irrigation water [0.5 (control), 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 dS/m] were allotted to main plots and eight genotypes of groundnut ('DRG 12', 'GG 4', 'ICGS 37', TAG 24', 'TG 26', 'GG 20', 'ICGS 76' and 'ICGV 86325') were in sub plots. After the harvest of groundnut, pearlmillet was raised to find out the performance of succeeding crop under different residual and direct salinity levels. Results indicated that water and soil salinity up to 4.0 and 1.6 dS/m, respectively can be safely used for realizing optimum groundnut pod yield. Among the tested genotypes, 'ICGS 76' and 'GG 20' were found to be more tolerant to salinity than other genotypes. The other genotypes performed well at germination stage but did not perform well at the later stages of crop growth. Pearlmillet can tolerate the water and soil salinity up to 4.0 and 4.4 dS/m, respectively in calcareous black clay soils. With an increase in the salinity of the irrigation water, the soil salinity in the root zone increased both in groundnut and pearlmillet crops but the buildup in salinity was more in pearlmillet than in kharif groundnut plots mainly owing to availability of sufficient rain water to leach down the salt below the root zone in case of groundnut.

Sharma S.K.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Jain N.K.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Jain N.K.,Groundnut Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2014

A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay loam soil during kharif and rabi of 2008-09 and 2009-10. There were 3 wheat - based cropping systems (maize -wheat, groundnut - wheat and clusterbean -wheat) and 3 treatments (100 % NPK, 100 % NPKS and 100 % NPKSZn) applied to kharif crops, in the main plots and 3 fertilizer (75, 100 and 125 % NPK to wheat) in the sub-plots, was laid out in split plot design with 3 replications. Groundnut - wheat cropping system as well as 100 % NPKSZn to kharif crops significantly higher wheat- grain equivalent yield (7118 kg/ha) and (7019 kg/ ha) and available N, P and K of soil. Successive increase in fertility levels up to 125 % NPK significantly increased wheat - grain equivalent yield (7063 kg/ha) and available N, P, K and Zn while available S decreased significantly with successive increase in fertility levels up to 125 % NPK. Balance sheet of nutrients indicated maximum deficit of nitrogen (-108.48 kg/ha) and sulphur (-37.06 kg/ha) in groundnut - wheat cropping system and potassium deficit (-164.33 kg/ha) in maize - wheat cropping system. Maximum deficits of N (-58.28 kg/ha) and K (-177.50 kg/ha) and positive zinc balance (+ 11.281 kg/ha) were recorded under 100 % NPKSZn. Application of 125 % NPK to wheat recorded maximum positive balance of N (+ 17.02 kg/ha) and P (+ 122.76 kg/ha) but maximum deficits of K (-153.23 kg/ ha) and S (-32.63 kg/ha), Maximum zinc balance (+ 3.462 kg/ha) was observed under 75% NPK. Groundnut - wheat cropping system recorded maximum positive balances of available N (+ 30.08 kg/ha) and P (+ 4.08 kg/ha).

Sharma S.K.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Jain N.K.,Groundnut Research
Legume Research | Year: 2012

A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay loam soil during two kharif seasons of 2008 to 2009 to study the effect of balanced fertilization on productivity and soil fertility status of clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taubert]. The experiment, comprised of 3 treatments i.e. 100 % NPK, 100 % NPKS and 100 % NPKSZn, laid out in randomised block design with 9 replications. Results revealed that application of 100 % NPKSZN significantly enhanced the seed and straw yields of clusterbean by 29.5 and 29.6 per cent over 100 % NPK, respectively. This treatment also recorded significantly higher concentrations and uptake of N, P, K, S and Zn as well as improved the soil fertility status.

Bera S.K.,Groundnut Research | Chandrashekar A.B.,Groundnut Research | Patel S.,Groundnut Research | Sojitra V.K.,Groundnut Research | Maurya A.,Groundnut Research
Turkish Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Diploid and tetraploid wild relatives of cultivated peanut are genetically diverse, providing rich sources of genetic resources for tapping resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis glabrata Benth. is a tetraploid (2n = 40) rhizomatous species that is reported to be tolerant to water deficit stress. Identification of A. glabrata accessions with high SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) and low specific leaf area (SLA) values would be an option for improving water deficit stress tolerance in peanut. An investigation was undertaken to study the genetic diversity of A. glabrata accessions using molecular markers as well as surrogate traits (SLA and SCMR) for water deficit stress to identify stable sources for SCMR and to identify DNA markers linked to SCMR. SCMR showed high heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean (GAM) and a negative relation with SLA in A. glabrata. High heritability and high GAM indicates additive gene action. A high level of genetic diversity was observed in A. glabrata accessions, indicating that these populations had not experienced major genetic bottlenecks or genetic drift. Eight random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were identified with significant association to SCMR. © TÜBİTAK.

Jat R.S.,Groundnut Research | Dayal D.,Groundnut Research | Meena H.N.,Groundnut Research | Singh V.,Groundnut Research | Gedia M.V.,Groundnut Research
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2011

A field experiment was conducted from 1999 to 2008 on fixed site at the research farm of Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh (Gujarat) to develop a sustainable nutrient management schedule for groundnut (Arachis hypogaca L)-based cropping systems, and to find out the influence of seasonal rainfall on pod yield of groundnut. Combination of 14 treatments of inorganic nutrients (100% RDF and 50% RDF) and farmyard manure (5 t/ha) were applied to groundnut and the component crops of groundnut-wheat and groundnut-wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol]-greengram [ Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] cropping systems. Integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrients (FYM 5 t/ha+50% RDF) to kharif groundnut recorded significantly higher pod yield (1,037 kg/ha) and the total system productivity in terms of groundnut equivalent yield (2,187 kg/ha) over the use of inorganic nutrients. This combination also recorded higher sustainable yield index and predictability over the use of inorganic nutrients across the experimental period. Among cropping systems, the total system productivity was significantly higher in groundnut-wheat-green gram cropping systems 2.34 + GPEY/ha with the integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrients. The rainfall in June had a significant effect on pod yield of groundnut when supplied with both organic and inorganic nutrients (FYM 5 t/ha+50% RDF). Depending upon the amount and period, rainfall received in the months of June and July had a positive effect on pod yield of groundnut, however, August and September rainfall showed negative effect.

Kalariya K.A.,Navsari Agricultural University | Kalariya K.A.,Groundnut Research | Mahatma M.K.,Navsari Agricultural University | Mahatma M.K.,Groundnut Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Effect of abscisic acid (ABA 0.1 mM) as foliar spray was studied on salinity induced antioxidant enzymes and proline content in three contrasting rice cultivars. Salinity shock was imposed on rice cultivars for 72 hours at flowering stage. ABA spray improved RWC (81.7%) as compared to control (75.4%). Proline content and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly increased with increasing salinity level. Maximum proline content was observed in Dandi at 300 mMNaCl.A non-significant effect of foliar ABA spray was observed on proline content and catalase activitybut the activities of superoxide dismutase,ascorbate peroxidase and guiacol peroxidase significantly increased. The salt tolerant variety Dandi is more responsive to ABA for up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes activity under salinity shock. © 2014, Indian Society of Agricultural Biochemists. All rights reserved.

Kumar G.D.S.,Junagadh Agricultural University | Kumar G.D.S.,Groundnut Research | Popat M.N.,Junagadh Agricultural University
Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension | Year: 2010

One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto research design and multistage random sampling. The data were collected from 180 respondents through interview schedule. For measuring adoption gap, knowledge of AMPG and perception of groundnut quality suitable scales were developed. The data were subjected to multiple regression analysis to know the characteristics, which influenced the adoption gaps in AMPG. The majority of farmers were in high adoption gap category, as most of the farmers had not adopted the harvest and post-harvest management practices. Farmers' characteristics such as knowledge, market orientation and innovativeness influenced the adoption gap significantly. These three variables put together explained 58% of variation in adoption gap. Based on the results, it is suggested to formulate strategies to increase the knowledge of farmers through various extension approaches. If the knowledge on AMPG is improved the adoption gaps can be reduced. The maiden research effort, shed light on the socio-economic dimensions of aflatoxin contamination and constraints for aflatoxin management at farmers' level. The study has significance for the policy makers, extension departments and groundnut farmers for production of quality groundnut. © 2010 Wageningen University.

Dey R.,Groundnut Research | Pal K.K.,Groundnut Research | Tilak K.V.B.R.,Osmania University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Biodiversity is an important ingredient of environmental conservation and is central to agriculture production. Most microbial diversity of the soil ecosystem is confined to the rhizosphere. Rhizodeposition through plant root exudates plays a major role in defining resident microflora, which differs from that in bulk soil. Rhizobacterial diversity is influenced by both plant and soil type. Soil factors, plant root exudates and agricultural management are the factors that determine the community composition within the rhizosphere. © The National Academy of Sciences, India 2012.

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