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Nasir B.F.,Griffith University | Griffiths L.,Griffith Institute of Health and Medical Research | Nasir A.,University of Newcastle | Roberts R.,The New School | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology

BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) often require surgery at some stage of disease course. Prediction of CD outcome is influenced by clinical, environmental, serological, and genetic factors (eg, NOD2). Being able to identify CD patients at high risk of surgical intervention should assist clinicians to decide whether or not to prescribe early aggressive treatment with immunomodulators. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of selected clinical (age at diagnosis, perianal disease, active smoking) and genetic (NOD2 genotype) data obtained for a population-based CD cohort from the Canterbury Inflammatory Bowel Disease study. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of complicated outcome in these CD patients (ie, need for inflammatory bowel disease-related surgery). RESULTS: Perianal disease and the NOD2 genotype were the only independent factors associated with the need for surgery in this patient group (odds ratio=2.84 and 1.60, respectively). By combining the associated NOD2 genotype with perianal disease we generated a single "clinicogenetic" variable. This was strongly associated with increased risk of surgery (odds ratio=3.84, P=0.00, confidence interval, 2.28-6.46) and offered moderate predictive accuracy (positive predictive value=0.62). Approximately 1/3 of surgical outcomes in this population are attributable to the NOD2+PA variable (attributable risk=0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of perianal disease and NOD2 genotype in patients presenting with CD may offer clinicians some decision-making utility for early diagnosis of complicated CD progression and initiating intensive treatment to avoid surgical intervention. Future studies should investigate combination effects of other genetic, clinical, and environmental factors when attempting to identify predictors of complicated CD outcomes. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Green M.R.,Griffith University | Green M.R.,Griffith Institute of Health and Medical Research | Aya-Bonilla C.,Griffith University | Aya-Bonilla C.,Griffith Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer

Recent developments in genomic technologies have resulted in increased understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and emphasized the importance of central survival pathways. Here, we use a novel bioinformatic based integrative genomic profiling approach to elucidate conserved mechanisms of lymphomagenesis in the three commonest non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) entities: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. By integrating genome-wide DNA copy number analysis and transcriptome profiling of tumor cohorts, we identified genetic lesions present in each entity and highlighted their likely target genes. This revealed a significant enrichment of components of both the apoptosis pathway and the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, including amplification of the MAP3K12 locus in all three entities, within the set of genes targeted by genetic alterations in these diseases. Furthermore, amplification of 12p13.33 was identified in all three entities and found to target the FOXM1 oncogene. Amplification of FOXM1 was subsequently found to be associated with an increased MYC oncogenic signaling signature, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of FOXM1 resulted in decreased MYC expression and induced G2 arrest. Together, these findings underscore genetic alteration of the MAPK and apoptosis pathways, and genetic amplification of FOXM1 as conserved mechanisms of lymphomagenesis in common NHL entities. Integrative genomic profiling identifies common central survival mechanisms and highlights them as attractive targets for directed therapy. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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