Clayton, Australia
Clayton, Australia

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Kessell A.,Gribbles Pathology | Hyatt A.,CSIRO | Lehmann D.,Kangaroo Island Veterinary Clinic | Shan S.,CSIRO | And 12 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

A novel virus, designated Cygnet River virus (CyRV), was isolated in embryonated eggs from Muscovy ducks in South Australia. CyRV morphologically resembles arenaviruses; however, sequencing identifi ed CyRV as an orthomyxovirus. The high mortality rate among ducks co-infected with salmonellae suggests that CyRV may be pathogenic, either alone or in concert with other infections.

Thompson M.,University of Queensland | Fleeman L.M.,University of Queensland | Kessell A.E,Gribbles Pathology | Steenhard L.A,University of New South Wales | Foster S.F.,Vetnostics
Australian Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Proximal renal tubulopathy was reported in Australian dogs with markedly increased frequency from September 2007. Methods: Two veterinarian-completed surveys were launched in response to an increased incidence of acquired proximal renal tubulopathy in dogs. The selection criterion for inclusion was glucosuria with blood glucose <10mmol/L. Data collected included signalment, presenting signs, history of feeding treats, results of urinalysis and blood tests, treatment and time to resolution of clinical signs. Results: A total of 108 affected dogs were studied. All had been fed the same brand of dried chicken treats, made in China, for a median of 12 weeks (range, 0.3-78 weeks). Small breeds (<10kg) accounted for 88% of cases. Common presenting signs included polyuria/polydipsia (76%), lethargy (73%), inappetence (65%) and vomiting (54%). Common biochemical findings included euglycaemia (74%; 71/96), hypoglycaemia (23%; 22/96), acidosis (77%; 20/26), hypokalaemia (45%; 38/84), hypophosphataemia (37%; 28/75) and azotaemia (27%; 23/85). In addition to discontinuation of treats, 64 dogs received medical treatment, including intravenous fluids (52%) and oral electrolyte, amino acid or vitamin supplements. Six dogs died or were euthanased. Two dogs were necropsied. Histopathological findings consisted of proximal tubular necrosis accompanied by regeneration. Time to resolution of clinical signs in 35 survivors available for follow-up was <2 weeks (n = 8), 2-4 weeks (n = 2), 5-7 weeks (n = 5) and 2-6 months (n = 10). Conclusion: Of the 108 dogs with acquired proximal renal tubulopathy contemporaneous with chicken treat consumption, most survived but many required aggressive supportive care. The treats likely contained a toxin targeting the proximal renal tubules. Diet history and urinalysis were vital for diagnosis. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

Rezo A.,The Canberra Hospital | Rezo A.,Capital Group | Rezo A.,Australian National University | Dahlstrom J.,The Canberra Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Breast | Year: 2011

Purpose: Current AJCC/UICC staging of early breast cancer defines tumor stage using the largest focus, adding the suffix " (m)" to indicate multiplicity. This method may underestimate the total tumor burden in multifocal and multicentric breast cancer (MMBC). This study examines other measures of tumor size in MMBC to determine which provides the best fit in a multivariate model for survival outcomes. Patients and methods: This prospective cohort study used data from the Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales Breast Cancer Treatment Group database to identify 812 women with ipsilateral invasive breast cancer; 141 of these women had MMBC. The pathology slides of all women with MMBC were reviewed and all foci of invasive breast cancer were re-measured. The measures of interest were the diameter of the largest deposit, the aggregate diameter and the aggregate volume. These measures of tumor size were included with other clinicopathological features of MMBC in a multivariate analysis to assess their relationship with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Tumor size was associated with PFS and OS in MMBC using any of the three measures; however, the diameter of the largest deposit provided the best fit in the multivariate model for OS. Conclusion: Tumor size is an important prognostic factor for MMBC, and the diameter of the largest deposit provides a better fit in a multivariate model for OS than aggregate diameter and aggregate volume. Therefore, tumor size in MMBC should continue to be measured using the diameter of the largest deposit. © 2011.

Scheelings T.F.,Australian Wildlife Health Center | Dobson E.C.,Gribbles Pathology | Hooper C.,Gribbles Pathology
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

Two captive adult female Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) were investigated for pruritis and dermatitis. In both cases skin lesions consisted of multifocal, superficial patches of crusting, hyperkeratosis, and ulceration. Lesions started on the ventral surfaces of the animal but then appeared on the dorsum as the disease progressed. In both animals, a diagnosis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma was made based on histologic appearance of skin biopsies using immunohistochemistry. Attempt at treatment with lomustine 20 mg p.o. once every 3 wk in one individual did not slow progression of the condition. As a result of their propensity for developing neoplastic conditions, the use of chemotherapeutic agents in Tasmanian devils warrants further investigation. © 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

PubMed | Gribbles Pathology and Australian Wildlife Health Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Australian veterinary journal | Year: 2015

Identification and characterisation of deaths is important for the veterinary management of both wild and captive animals. It is especially important as a tool for monitoring health and disease within populations of endangered species for which little information on morbidity and mortality is known. Investigations into the causes of death and other important necropsy findings were made in a captive population of the critically endangered mountain pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus).Necropsy records from January 2000-December 2013 were reviewed for all possums that had lived and died at Healesville Sanctuary (n=48).The average age of death of possums in this population was 4.7years. The most common histological change in mountain pygmy-possums was varying degrees of chronic progressive kidney disease (n=17). Of these cases, eight animals (47%) had histological changes suggesting the kidney disease was the likely cause of death. Other causes of death included neoplasia (n=5), necrotising pancreatitis (n=4), pneumonia (n=2), reproductive disease (n=2) and trauma (n=2). No cause of death was able to be identified in 33.3% (n=16) of cases. Hepatic lipidosis (n=5), pneumonia (n=2) and degenerative joint disease (n=2) were the most common comorbidities found.Progressive renal disease, often with secondary metastatic mineralisation, appears to be a significant cause of mortality in captive mountain pygmy-possums and further investigation into its pathophysiology, antemortem diagnosis and treatment is warranted.

Johnson D.W.,Princess Alexandra Hospital | Jones G.R.D.,St Vincents Hospital | Mathew T.H.,Kidney Health Australia | Ludlow M.J.,Kidney Health Australia | And 7 more authors.
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2012

Optimal detection and subsequent risk stratification of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires simultaneous consideration of both kidney function (glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) and kidney damage (as indicated by albuminuria or proteinuria). Measurement of urinary albuminuria and proteinuria is hindered by a lack of standardisation regarding requesting, sample collection, reporting and interpretation of tests. A multidisciplinary working group was convened with the goal of developing and promoting recommendations that achieve consensus on these issues. The working group recommended that the preferred method for assessment of albuminuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients is urinary albumin-tocreatinine ratio (UACR) measurement in a first-void spot urine specimen. Where a first-void specimen is not possible or practical, a random spot urine specimen for UACR is acceptable. The working group recommended that adults with one or more risk factors for CKD should be assessed using UACR and estimated GFR every 1-2 years, depending on their risk-factor profile. Recommended testing algorithms and sex-specific cut-points for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria are provided. The working group recommended that all pathology laboratories in Australia should implement the relevant recommendations as a vital component of an integrated national approach to detection of CKD.

Haleagrahara N.,International Medical University | Jackie T.,International Medical University | Chakravarthi S.,International Medical University | Rao M.,International Medical University | Pasupathi T.,Gribbles Pathology
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

Several environmental toxins with toxic effects to the bone marrow have been identified. Pathology associated with lead intoxication is due to the cellular damage mediated by free radicals. In the current study, we examined the effect of Etlingera elatior extract on lead-induced changes in the oxidative biomarkers and histology of bone marrow of rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 500. ppm lead acetate in their drinking water for 14. days. E. elatior extract was treated orally (100. mg/kg body weight) in combination with, or after lead acetate treatment. The results showed that there was a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxide, protein carbonyl content and a significant decrease in total antioxidants, super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione - S-transferase in bone marrow after lead acetate exposure. Treatment with E. elatior decreased lipid hydroperoxides and protein carbonyl contents and significantly increased total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Treatments with E. elatior extract also reduced, lead-induced histopathological damage in bone marrow. In conclusion, these data suggest that E. elatior has a powerful antioxidant effect, and it protects the lead acetate-induced bone marrow oxidative damage in rats. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Golbabapour S.,University of Malaya | Pang W.W.,University of Malaya | George J.,University of Malaya | Pasupati T.,Gribbles Pathology | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

The present study was undertaken to develop a rat model for monitoring the early development of breast cancer. Twelve female rats were divided into two groups of six rats that were either treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea to induce breast cancer or with bacterial lipopolysaccharide to induce inflammation. Serum samples taken from the rats prior to the treatment were used as controls. By the 14th week, presence of the tumor was detectable by contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by histopathology. When the serum proteins of the rats were examined by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), no difference could be detected in the profiles of all proteins before and 18 weeks after administration of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. However, higher expression of alpha-1B glycoprotein was detectable by 2-DE in serum samples of rats at the 18th week post-treatment with lipopolysaccharide. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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