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Clayton South, Australia

Thompson M.,University of Queensland | Fleeman L.M.,University of Queensland | Kessell A.E,Gribbles Pathology | Steenhard L.A,University of New South Wales | Foster S.F.,Vetnostics
Australian Veterinary Journal

Background: Proximal renal tubulopathy was reported in Australian dogs with markedly increased frequency from September 2007. Methods: Two veterinarian-completed surveys were launched in response to an increased incidence of acquired proximal renal tubulopathy in dogs. The selection criterion for inclusion was glucosuria with blood glucose <10mmol/L. Data collected included signalment, presenting signs, history of feeding treats, results of urinalysis and blood tests, treatment and time to resolution of clinical signs. Results: A total of 108 affected dogs were studied. All had been fed the same brand of dried chicken treats, made in China, for a median of 12 weeks (range, 0.3-78 weeks). Small breeds (<10kg) accounted for 88% of cases. Common presenting signs included polyuria/polydipsia (76%), lethargy (73%), inappetence (65%) and vomiting (54%). Common biochemical findings included euglycaemia (74%; 71/96), hypoglycaemia (23%; 22/96), acidosis (77%; 20/26), hypokalaemia (45%; 38/84), hypophosphataemia (37%; 28/75) and azotaemia (27%; 23/85). In addition to discontinuation of treats, 64 dogs received medical treatment, including intravenous fluids (52%) and oral electrolyte, amino acid or vitamin supplements. Six dogs died or were euthanased. Two dogs were necropsied. Histopathological findings consisted of proximal tubular necrosis accompanied by regeneration. Time to resolution of clinical signs in 35 survivors available for follow-up was <2 weeks (n = 8), 2-4 weeks (n = 2), 5-7 weeks (n = 5) and 2-6 months (n = 10). Conclusion: Of the 108 dogs with acquired proximal renal tubulopathy contemporaneous with chicken treat consumption, most survived but many required aggressive supportive care. The treats likely contained a toxin targeting the proximal renal tubules. Diet history and urinalysis were vital for diagnosis. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association. Source

Rezo A.,The Canberra Hospital | Rezo A.,Capital Group | Rezo A.,Australian National University | Dahlstrom J.,The Canberra Hospital | And 10 more authors.

Purpose: Current AJCC/UICC staging of early breast cancer defines tumor stage using the largest focus, adding the suffix " (m)" to indicate multiplicity. This method may underestimate the total tumor burden in multifocal and multicentric breast cancer (MMBC). This study examines other measures of tumor size in MMBC to determine which provides the best fit in a multivariate model for survival outcomes. Patients and methods: This prospective cohort study used data from the Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales Breast Cancer Treatment Group database to identify 812 women with ipsilateral invasive breast cancer; 141 of these women had MMBC. The pathology slides of all women with MMBC were reviewed and all foci of invasive breast cancer were re-measured. The measures of interest were the diameter of the largest deposit, the aggregate diameter and the aggregate volume. These measures of tumor size were included with other clinicopathological features of MMBC in a multivariate analysis to assess their relationship with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Tumor size was associated with PFS and OS in MMBC using any of the three measures; however, the diameter of the largest deposit provided the best fit in the multivariate model for OS. Conclusion: Tumor size is an important prognostic factor for MMBC, and the diameter of the largest deposit provides a better fit in a multivariate model for OS than aggregate diameter and aggregate volume. Therefore, tumor size in MMBC should continue to be measured using the diameter of the largest deposit. © 2011. Source

Kessell A.,Gribbles Pathology | Hyatt A.,CSIRO | Lehmann D.,Kangaroo Island Veterinary Clinic | Shan S.,CSIRO | And 12 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases

A novel virus, designated Cygnet River virus (CyRV), was isolated in embryonated eggs from Muscovy ducks in South Australia. CyRV morphologically resembles arenaviruses; however, sequencing identifi ed CyRV as an orthomyxovirus. The high mortality rate among ducks co-infected with salmonellae suggests that CyRV may be pathogenic, either alone or in concert with other infections. Source

Johnson D.W.,Princess Alexandra Hospital | Jones G.R.D.,St. Vincents Hospital | Mathew T.H.,Kidney Health Australia | Ludlow M.J.,Kidney Health Australia | And 7 more authors.
Medical Journal of Australia

Optimal detection and subsequent risk stratification of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires simultaneous consideration of both kidney function (glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) and kidney damage (as indicated by albuminuria or proteinuria). Measurement of urinary albuminuria and proteinuria is hindered by a lack of standardisation regarding requesting, sample collection, reporting and interpretation of tests. A multidisciplinary working group was convened with the goal of developing and promoting recommendations that achieve consensus on these issues. The working group recommended that the preferred method for assessment of albuminuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients is urinary albumin-tocreatinine ratio (UACR) measurement in a first-void spot urine specimen. Where a first-void specimen is not possible or practical, a random spot urine specimen for UACR is acceptable. The working group recommended that adults with one or more risk factors for CKD should be assessed using UACR and estimated GFR every 1-2 years, depending on their risk-factor profile. Recommended testing algorithms and sex-specific cut-points for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria are provided. The working group recommended that all pathology laboratories in Australia should implement the relevant recommendations as a vital component of an integrated national approach to detection of CKD. Source

Haleagrahara N.,International Medical University | Jackie T.,International Medical University | Chakravarthi S.,International Medical University | Rao M.,International Medical University | Pasupathi T.,Gribbles Pathology
Food and Chemical Toxicology

Several environmental toxins with toxic effects to the bone marrow have been identified. Pathology associated with lead intoxication is due to the cellular damage mediated by free radicals. In the current study, we examined the effect of Etlingera elatior extract on lead-induced changes in the oxidative biomarkers and histology of bone marrow of rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 500. ppm lead acetate in their drinking water for 14. days. E. elatior extract was treated orally (100. mg/kg body weight) in combination with, or after lead acetate treatment. The results showed that there was a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxide, protein carbonyl content and a significant decrease in total antioxidants, super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione - S-transferase in bone marrow after lead acetate exposure. Treatment with E. elatior decreased lipid hydroperoxides and protein carbonyl contents and significantly increased total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Treatments with E. elatior extract also reduced, lead-induced histopathological damage in bone marrow. In conclusion, these data suggest that E. elatior has a powerful antioxidant effect, and it protects the lead acetate-induced bone marrow oxidative damage in rats. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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