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News Article | November 2, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

A new study suggests that an ability to delay immediate gratification is associated with less frequent consumption of fast food. The study, which appears early online in Preventive Medicine has public health significance since away-from-home eating, and fast food consumption in particular, contribute to obesity in the United States. Food consumed away from home often consists of energy-dense nutrient-poor food, which increases the risk for obesity and other chronic conditions. Behavioral economics, the application of psychology to economics, has the potential to offer additional insights into eating behaviors. For example, previous research has shown "impatient time preferences" lead to decision-making based on immediate gratification (e.g. watching TV) instead of behavior (e.g. exercise) that will benefit one's future welfare (e.g. improved longevity). To investigate further, researchers from the American Cancer Society along with colleagues at the University of California, Irvine, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and the Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition, embarked on this study to identify factors that affect away-from-home eating. The study team analyzed responses from 5,871 U.S. adults taking part in a 2011 survey asking about lifestyle behaviors, including frequency of fast food consumption. Also included were questions measuring time preferences. Participants were asked whether they preferred an immediate dollar amount now or a larger sum later (e.g. $10 now or $12, $15, or $18 in 30 days). The findings showed that willingness to wait for the larger amount was significantly associated with less frequent fast food intake. Those who most often chose the delayed sum were 26% less likely to consume fast food than those on the other end of the scale. There was no association with full-service restaurant intake. The authors note that the results stem from cross-sectional data, limiting the ability to reach a conclusive determination about causality. Therefore, future longitudinal research on this topic is warranted. "Our findings reveal that a high degree of future orientation appears to be protective against eating frequently at fast food establishments," said Kerem Shuval, PhD, of the American Cancer Society, lead author of the study. "It may be possible, and relevant, to assess and inform individuals of their tendency to delay, or not delay, immediate gratification, and find strategies to prevent unhealthy behaviors. For example, packing lunches and healthful snacks in the evening to bring to work could potentially prevent trips to the vending machine or the adjacent fast food establishment." Michal Stoklosa, MA, senior economist at the American Cancer Society and a co-author on the study, added that another strategy suggested by behavioral economists is the use of pre-commitment contracts. These are self-imposed present day constraints aimed at improving behavior in the future. For example, a sum of money is deposited by the individual to a third party, and if pre-determined goals are not met, such as eating less frequently at fast food restaurants, the money will be lost or given to charity.


News Article | October 31, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new study suggests that an ability to delay immediate gratification is associated with less frequent consumption of fast food. The study, which appears early online in Preventive Medicine has public health significance since away-from-home eating, and fast food consumption in particular, contribute to obesity in the United States. Food consumed away from home often consists of energy-dense nutrient-poor food, which increases the risk for obesity and other chronic conditions. Behavioral economics, the application of psychology to economics, has the potential to offer additional insights into eating behaviors. For example, previous research has shown "impatient time preferences" lead to decision-making based on immediate gratification (e.g. watching TV) instead of behavior (e.g. exercise) that will benefit one's future welfare (e.g. improved longevity). To investigate further, researchers from the American Cancer Society along with colleagues at the University of California, Irvine, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and the Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition, embarked on this study to identify factors that affect away-from-home eating. The study team analyzed responses from 5,871 U.S. adults taking part in a 2011 survey asking about lifestyle behaviors, including frequency of fast food consumption. Also included were questions measuring time preferences. Participants were asked whether they preferred an immediate dollar amount now or a larger sum later (e.g. $10 now or $12, $15, or $18 in 30 days). The findings showed that willingness to wait for the larger amount was significantly associated with less frequent fast food intake. Those who most often chose the delayed sum were 26% less likely to consume fast food than those on the other end of the scale. There was no association with full-service restaurant intake. The authors note that the results stem from cross-sectional data, limiting the ability to reach a conclusive determination about causality. Therefore, future longitudinal research on this topic is warranted. "Our findings reveal that a high degree of future orientation appears to be protective against eating frequently at fast food establishments," said Kerem Shuval, PhD, of the American Cancer Society, lead author of the study. "It may be possible, and relevant, to assess and inform individuals of their tendency to delay, or not delay, immediate gratification, and find strategies to prevent unhealthy behaviors. For example, packing lunches and healthful snacks in the evening to bring to work could potentially prevent trips to the vending machine or the adjacent fast food establishment." Michal Stoklosa, MA, senior economist at the American Cancer Society and a co-author on the study, added that another strategy suggested by behavioral economists is the use of pre-commitment contracts. These are self-imposed present day constraints aimed at improving behavior in the future. For example, a sum of money is deposited by the individual to a third party, and if pre-determined goals are not met, such as eating less frequently at fast food restaurants, the money will be lost or given to charity. Additional study authors include: Jeffrey Drope, PhD (American Cancer Society), Matthew Harding, PhD (University of California, Irvine), Mark Pachucki, PhD (University of Massachusetts, Amherst), and Amy Yaroch, PhD (The Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition). Article: Economic Preferences and Fast Food Consumption in US adults: Insights from Behavioral Economics; Prev Med. 2016 Oct 21. pii: S0091-7435(16)30338-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.10.016


Grimm K.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Kim S.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Yaroch A.L.,Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition | Scanlon K.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Objectives: To examine the association of timing of introduction and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake during infancy with frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at age 6 years in a cohort of US children. CopyrightMethods: We analyzed data on fruit and vegetable intake during late infancy, age of fruit and vegetable introduction, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) Study. We determined the percent of 6-year-old children consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per day and examined associations with infant fruit and vegetable intake using logistic regression modeling, controlling for multiple covariates (n = 1078).Results: Based on maternal report, 31.9% of 6-year-old children consumed fruit less than once daily and 19.0% consumed vegetables less than once daily. In adjusted analyses, children who consumed fruits and vegetables less than once daily during late infancy had increased odds of eating fruits and vegetables less than once daily at age 6 years (fruit, adjusted odds ratio: 2.48; vegetables, adjusted odds ratio: 2.40). Age of introduction of fruits and vegetables was not associated with intake at age 6 years.Conclusions: Our study suggests that infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables during late infancy is associated with infrequent intake of these foods at 6 years of age. These findings highlight the importance of infant feeding guidance that encourages intake of fruits and vegetables and the need to examine barriers to fruit and vegetable intake during infancy. © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Erinosho T.O.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Moser R.P.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Oh A.Y.,SAIC | Nebeling L.C.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Yaroch A.L.,Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition
Appetite | Year: 2012

Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is recommended to reduce chronic disease risk. Few studies have examined awareness of the current fruit and vegetable campaign in the United States, Fruits and Veggies-More Matters. This study assessed awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign and knowledge of the 7-13 serving recommendation for fruit and vegetable consumption among adults, and determined whether these were associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Cross-sectional data from 3021 adults in the United States' National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey were analyzed. Few participants were aware of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign (2%) and the 7-13 recommendation (6%) for adults. More participants were aware of the former 5 A Day campaign (29%) and recommendation (30%). Thirty-nine percent reported consuming ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Participants were more likely to consume ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day if they were aware of the 5 A Day/Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, and reported that the recommendation for adults was ≥5 servings/day. Findings suggest the need to increase awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, and the 7-13 recommendation among adults to support high fruit and vegetable intake. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Nguyen B.T.,Economic and Health Policy Research Program | Shuval K.,Economic and Health Policy Research Program | Bertmann F.,South HeroVT | Yaroch A.L.,Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objectives. We examined whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation changes associations between food insecurity, dietary quality, and weight among US adults. Methods. We analyzed adult dietary intake data (n = 8333) from the 2003 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bivariate and multivariable methods assessed associations of SNAP participation and 4 levels of food security with diet and weight. Measures of dietary quality were the Healthy Eating Index 2010, total caloric intake, empty calories, and solid fat; weight measures were body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. Results. SNAP participants with marginal food security had lower BMI (1.83 kg/m2; P < .01) and lower probability of obesity (9 percentage points; P < .05). SNAP participants with marginal (3.46 points; P < .01), low (1.98 points; P < .05), and very low (3.84 points; P < .01) food security had better diets, as illustrated by the Healthy Eating Index. Associations between SNAP participation and improved diet and weight were stronger among Whites than Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions. Our research highlights the role of SNAP in helping individuals who are at risk for food insecurity to obtain a healthier diet and better weight status.


Pinard C.A.,Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition | Hart M.H.,Carilion Clinic | Hodgkins Y.,Carilion Clinic | Serrano E.L.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 2 more authors.
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2012

This pre-post study used a mixed-methods approach to examine the impact of a family-based weight management program among a low-income population. Smart Choices for Healthy Families was developed through an integrated research-practice partnership and piloted with 26 children and parents (50% boys; mean age = 10.5 years; 54% Black) who were referred by their pediatrician. Smart Choices included six biweekly group sessions and six automated telephone-counseling calls over 3 months. Children displayed reduced body mass index z-scores (p < .05), increased lean muscle mass (p < .001), and increased quality of life (p < .0001). Follow-up interviews indicated that physicians valued the lay leaders' ability to provide lifestyle education, whereas lay leaders extended their reach to more community members. Parents wanted to become positive role models and found that the calls maintained focus on goals. Smart Choices shows promise to initiate weight management for children in low-income families. © 2012 Society for Public Health Education.


Bertmann F.M.W.,University of Vermont | Yaroch A.L.,Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition
Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition | Year: 2016

Although sustainable food system literature is increasing, a minimal amount of published work addresses the role of breast milk and breastfeeding in these systems. The paper includes: (1) use of Food Regime Theory (FRT) to understand the historical, political, and economic changes contributing to infant feeding practices; (2) an investigation of artificial infant milks as a commodity in the industrial food system; and (3) the exploration of how breastfeeding could be applied to a sustainability framework. By addressing these perspectives, nutrition policy experts and community health practitioners can increase awareness of the association between human lactation and sustainable, resilient food systems. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.


Schober D.J.,Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition | Fawcett S.B.,University of Kansas
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2015

The DELTA PREP Project aims to reduce risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). It engaged leadership and staff from 19 statewide domestic violence coalitions in building capacity to prevent IPV before it occurs (rather than solely responding to IPV). This article describes the process and outcomes associated with action planning to create coalition organizational change related to preventing IPV. Coalition staff and leadership planned for organizational changes in six goal areas: leadership, structures and processes, staffing, resource development, partnership development, and member agency development. Action planning was conducted during 2-day, in-person sessions that involved (a) review and refinement of coalition vision and mission statements, (b) interpretation of coalition assessments (for prevention capacity), (c) identification of specific organizational changes to be sought, and (d) specification of action steps for each proposed organizational change to be sought. The results show overall increases in the amounts, and variations in the kinds, of organizational changes that were facilitated by coalitions. Challenges related to action planning and future directions for capacity building among statewide IPV prevention coalitions are discussed. © 2015, © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.


Byker C.J.,Montana State University | Pinard C.A.,Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition | Yaroch A.L.,Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition | Serrano E.L.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior | Year: 2013

The recent revisions of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) requirements are designed to align with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The introduction and implementation of the new NSLP has been received with positive and negative reactions from school food professionals, students, parents, and teachers. To promote student health, this is an important time for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to implement and evaluate strategies to support the new NSLP guidelines. The purpose ofthis viewpoint was to outline the new NSLP guidelines and discuss challenges and opportunities for implementation, strategies for practice, and future research questions. © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior.


Pinard C.A.,Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition | Davy B.M.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Estabrooks P.A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Eating Behaviors | Year: 2011

Beverage consumption adds to daily energy intake and often exceeds the recommended amount for discretionary energy. Previous research has shown that children are consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in greater frequency and the relationship between parent-child dyads in beverage consumption is meaningful due to the parental influence on the development of beverage consumption behaviors. In particular, low-income families are at greater risk for obesity and higher levels of SSB consumption. The current investigation assessed habitual beverage intake among low-income parent-child dyads (N=95) with children between the ages of 9-17years. The sample (46% African American; 45% Caucasian) had a mean body mass index (BMI) for the parents of 31.8±8.9kg/m 2, while the mean BMI percentile for age and gender for the children was 70.3±31.3. Both parents and children consumed fewer nutrient-dense beverages and more energy-dense beverages than the recommended amount. The mean daily energy intake from beverages was 451±236kcal for the parents and 457±237kcal for the children. Correlations between parent-child dyad intake was also evident, identifying parents as potential role models and gatekeepers of the home food environment. Future interventions to prevent childhood obesity in low-income populations should address beverage intake, particularly SSB consumption, and determine the degree to which this behavior is learned behavior in the home. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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