Nogent-sur-Marne, France
Nogent-sur-Marne, France

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Cames C.,IRD Montpellier | Mouquet-Rivier C.,Montpellier SupAgro | Traore T.,GRET | Ayassou K.A.,Center Muraz | And 3 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective To provide HIV-positive mothers who opted for exclusive breastfeeding or formula feeding from birth to 6 months postpartum as a means of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV with a sustainable infant food support programme (FSP) from 6 to 12 months postpartum. We describe the implementation and assessment of this pilot initiative.Design The FSP included a 6-month provision of locally produced infant fortified mix (IFM; 418 kJ/100 g of gruel) for non-breastfed infants coupled with infant-feeding and psychosocial counselling and support. Acceptability and feasibility were assessed in a subsample of sixty-eight mother-infant pairs.Setting The FSP was developed in collaboration with local partners to support participants in a PMTCT prevention study. Formula was provided for free from 0 to 6 months postpartum. Cessation by 6 months was recommended for breastfeeding mothers.Results The FSP was positively received and greatly encouraged breastfeeding mothers to cease by 6 months. As recommended, most infants were given milk as an additional replacement food, mainly formula subsidised by safety networks. Among daily IFM consumers, feeding practices were satisfactory overall; however, the IFM was shared within the family by more than one-third of the mothers. Cessation of IFM consumption was observed among twenty-two infants, seventeen of whom were fed milk and five neither of these.Conclusions Without any food support most mothers would have been unable to provide appropriate replacement feeding. The food security of non-breastfed infants urgently needs to be addressed in HIV PMTCT programmes. Our findings on a simple cost-effective pioneer intervention provide an important foundation for this process. © 2010 The Authors.


Doan T.T.,IRD Montpellier | Bouvier C.,Montpellier University | Bettarel Y.,Montpellier University | Bouvier T.,Montpellier University | And 6 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2014

Vermicompost and biochar amendments are management practices which may contribute to sustainable agroecosystems by reducing dependence on inorganic fertilizers. However, little is known about their impacts on soil microorganisms and their transfer and evolution in connected aquatic systems. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of organic manure (buffalo manure, compost or vermicompost) and biochar amendments on bacterial and viral properties in soil and water. A three year experiment was carried out with terrestrial mesocosms which were used to test the effect of organic matter amendment on maize growth. In the last year of the experiment, runoff and infiltration waters from the terrestrial mesocosms were transferred to aquatic mesocosms. Organic fertilization improved soil properties (higher C, N content and pHH2O) and as a consequence increased soil bacterial and viral abundance. Bacterial diversity (Shannon '. H' and richness '. S' indices calculated from DGGE fingerprint) was also enhanced after the continuous application of organic amendments. Compared with compost, vermicompost reduced viral abundance and S but similar H and bacterial abundance were observed. The pHH2O, C content and bacterial and viral abundance increased in the aquatic mesocosms following organic fertilization. As a consequence, bacterial and viral diversity also increased in the water, although no differences were found between compost and vermicompost. Biochar increased soil bacterial abundance for the mineral fertilizer treatment but did not influence bacterial and viral abundance in water. However, the combination of biochar and vermicompost led to an increase of viruses in soil and a reduction of bacteria in water. Similarity dendrograms from the DGGE banding patterns showed that the structure of bacterial communities was mainly influenced by the fertilizer treatments in soil but by the presence of biochar in water. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the nature of the organic amendment has important consequences on both soil and water microbial abundance and diversity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Bruyeron O.,Gret | Denizeau M.,Gret | Berger J.,IRD Montpellier | Treche S.,IRD Montpellier
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2010

Background. Sustainable approaches to improving infant and young child feeding are needed. The Nutridev program worked in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to test different strategies to improve complementary feeding using fortified products sold to families. Objective. To review the experiences of programs producing and marketing fortified complementary foods and to report on the feasibility of local production and marketing of fortified complementary foods to increase usage of high-quality foods among children of lowincome families in a self-sustaining manner. Methods. Project documents, surveys of mothers, and production and sales reports were reviewed. Results. Nutridev experience in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso demonstrates that it is possible to produce affordable, high-quality complementary foods and supplements locally in developing countries. Strategies to make products readily available to the targeted population and to convince this population to consume them yielded mixed results, varying greatly based on the strategy utilized and the context in which it was implemented. Conclusions. In several contexts, the optimal approach appears to be strengthening the existing food distribution network to sell complementary foods and supplements, with the implementation of a temporary promotion and nutrition education network in partnership with local authorities (e.g., health services) to increase awareness among families about the fortified complementary food product and optimal feeding practices. In urban areas, where the density of the population is high, design and implementation of specific networks very close to consumers seems to be a good way to combine economic sustainability and good consumption levels. © 2010, The United Nations University.


Frenoux C.M.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Tsitsikalis A.,GRET
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | Year: 2015

Over the past decades, in developing countries, several urban sanitation management models have been promoted, showing various results, often poor, as regards reducing negative environmental, public health impacts and in reaching access to sanitation for all. Many studies and reports highlight that solutions should be found by promotion of on-site and decentralized sanitation approaches including fecal sludge management (FSM). However, few papers have either offered a comprehensive analysis of FSM services, regarding both demand from households and services provision from public and/or private operators. Based on field research in Cambodia, this paper aims to fill this gap. It is built on a large survey conducted in three cities in 2011. Results showed that the Cambodian FSM sector is dominated by private mechanical extraction and transportation operators (ETO). The FSM market looks economically efficient with reasonable fees. It also offers a reasonably high level of service quality including profitability of businesses, although the FSM market is also characterized by strong negative environmental externalities that are not considered. Consequently, this paper advocates an integrated urban sanitation approach that aims at exploring in more detail how to integrate gradually and complementarily private mechanical ETOs and households practices into a more complex sanitation urban model raising the key issue of financing the externalities’ costs. © IWA Publishing 2015


Faure G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rebuffel P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Violas D.,Gret
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2011

Services related to management advice for family farms have been promoted in West Africa in order to better address the producers' needs. This paper aims at showing that these services can be understood as systems the functioning of which is strongly determined by the financing mechanisms, the governance mechanisms put in place, the quality of the human resources delivering advice, and the characteristics of the advisory method. An analysis of two case studies, in Benin and Burkina Faso, shows that: i) there is a need for continuous adaptation of the method of intervention taking into account changes in financial capabilities and human resources available for providing advisory services; ii) the nature and the quality of advisory activities are closely related to the skills of advisors and managers of advisory services; iii) the governance mechanisms to steer the advisory services reveal the social relations between the stakeholders and influence the content of the advice; and iv) the funding mechanisms are pivotal in defining the rules of governance. From this analysis lessons are drawn in order to support advisory services.


Faure G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rebuffel P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Violas D.,GRET
Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension | Year: 2011

In West Africa, advisory services for family farms have been promoted to better address producers' needs. The paper aims to show that these services can be understood as a system whose functioning is strongly determined by the financing mechanisms, the governance mechanisms put in place, the quality of human resources delivering advice, and the characteristics of the advisory method. The study is based on an analysis of two case studies in Benin and Burkina Faso using a common framework derived from an agricultural advisory system approach. The study highlights the strong interaction between the different components of the system. It shows that (i) the intervention method needs to be continuously adapted to take into account changes in financial capabilities and human resources available for providing advisory services, (ii) the nature and the quality of advisory activities are closely related to the skills of advisors and managers of advisory services, (iii) the governance mechanisms steering advisory services reveal the social relations between the stakeholders and influence the content of the advice, and (iv) the funding mechanisms are pivotal in defining the rules of governance. Lessons learned are drawn from this analysis that may serve to support advisory services. © 2011 Wageningen University.


Mouquet-Rivier C.,Montpellier University | Traore T.,GRET | Soma A.,GRET | Kabore C.,GRET | Treche S.,Montpellier University
Appetite | Year: 2016

Traditional fermented millet gruel is frequently eaten by children in Burkina Faso as a complementary food or for breakfast. The effects of gruel energy density and feeding style on intakes (amounts and energy) were assessed in children in Ouagadougou. Twenty-three young children (11 infants and 12 toddlers) were given two meals of gruel per day for two periods of 11 consecutive days, first, the traditional fermented gruel (TFG), and second, an improved high energy density fermented gruel (IFG). On the first 10 days of each period, the children were fed as usual, while on the 11th day, the mothers were asked to use encouraging feeding. Intakes of TFG and IFG were also measured once a day for nine days in 25 preschoolers (2-5 years-old). After adjustment for the subject effect, IFG intakes did not significantly differ from TFG intakes in the groups of infants and toddlers, meaning there was a significant increase in energy intakes, which almost doubled. Encouraging feeding increased TFG intakes in both age groups, but IFG intakes only increased in toddlers, whose energy intake tripled compared to that from TFG with the usual feeding style. In preschoolers, mean IFG intakes were lower than TFG intakes and there were no increase in mean energy intakes. Improving fermented gruel and training the mothers to encourage their young children during feeding are two possible strategies to improve food intakes, and hence to better satisfy the children's nutritional needs. © 2016 .


Pedregal V.D.,GRET | Ozcaglar-Toulouse N.,University of Lille Nord de France
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2011

Current statistics show that more than three out of four people in France have heard about fair trade. However, fair trade goods are purchased in significantly higher proportions by executive class people, individuals with a postgraduate education, urban dwellers and high-income earners. Why does not everybody purchase fair trade products? An important question follows: is fair trade not really fair for consumers? This paper seeks to gain deeper insight into what social features give rise to the consumption of fair trade goods using quantitative and qualitative data to verify the reasons for which fair trade goods are consumed by particular groups in society. It shows that the lack of access to information and financial resources can explain consumers' refusal to purchase fair trade products. But this explanation is incomplete, as the meaning given by consumers to their consumption appears to be a key-factor to understand their behaviour: refusing to buy fair trade goods can be a deliberate choice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Karsenty A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Vogel A.,GRET | Castell F.,GRET
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2014

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) has become a central dimension of the contemporary international forest regime. The mechanism seeks to reward actors for keeping or restoring forests as a means to reduce carbon emissions. Carbon rights, here understood as title to carbon credits, have an odd status in the REDD+ debate. They are closely associated with the belief that REDD+ will generate (economic) "rents" - i.e. revenues exceeding the full cost of the corresponding effort - which means framing the discussion in terms of entitlement to revenues beyond mere financial compensations. We suggest that, in an "ideal" REDD+ scheme, the possibility of obtaining rents in REDD+ would be very limited. In the real world, rent could be created by strategic behaviours by setting a reference emission level (what would occur under a business-as-usual scenario) and by possible acceptance, for political reasons, of inappropriate rules such as being remunerated for the full stock of carbon. The carbon rights rhetoric leads to rent-seeking since remunerations could be disconnected from the active contribution to the production of emission reductions, which is a public good by nature. Another interpretation of carbon rights is the right to benefit from the sale of carbon credits, a framework within which what is at stake is sharing the benefits deriving from the human production and the sale of these benefits, a traditional social issue. In this case, we argue, the concept of carbon rights is useless and even misleading. Compensating for easements would be a more appropriate framework for designing incentive schemes such as payments for environmental services (PES). Reforming land tenure codes to allow individuals, families and communities to claim property or collective tenure rights on the land and the trees is the issue that matters in order to start tackling fairness in REDD+ and PES initiatives. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Traditional fermented millet gruel is frequently eaten by children in Burkina Faso as a complementary food or for breakfast. The effects of gruel energy density and feeding style on intakes (amounts and energy) were assessed in children in Ouagadougou. Twenty-three young children (11 infants and 12 toddlers) were given two meals of gruel per day for two periods of 11 consecutive days, first, the traditional fermented gruel (TFG), and second, an improved high energy density fermented gruel (IFG). On the first 10 days of each period, the children were fed as usual, while on the 11th day, the mothers were asked to use encouraging feeding. Intakes of TFG and IFG were also measured once a day for nine days in 25 preschoolers (2-5 years-old). After adjustment for the subject effect, IFG intakes did not significantly differ from TFG intakes in the groups of infants and toddlers, meaning there was a significant increase in energy intakes, which almost doubled. Encouraging feeding increased TFG intakes in both age groups, but IFG intakes only increased in toddlers, whose energy intake tripled compared to that from TFG with the usual feeding style. In preschoolers, mean IFG intakes were lower than TFG intakes and there were no increase in mean energy intakes. Improving fermented gruel and training the mothers to encourage their young children during feeding are two possible strategies to improve food intakes, and hence to better satisfy the childrens nutritional needs.

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