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Nogent-sur-Marne, France

Faure G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rebuffel P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Violas D.,Gret
Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension | Year: 2011

In West Africa, advisory services for family farms have been promoted to better address producers' needs. The paper aims to show that these services can be understood as a system whose functioning is strongly determined by the financing mechanisms, the governance mechanisms put in place, the quality of human resources delivering advice, and the characteristics of the advisory method. The study is based on an analysis of two case studies in Benin and Burkina Faso using a common framework derived from an agricultural advisory system approach. The study highlights the strong interaction between the different components of the system. It shows that (i) the intervention method needs to be continuously adapted to take into account changes in financial capabilities and human resources available for providing advisory services, (ii) the nature and the quality of advisory activities are closely related to the skills of advisors and managers of advisory services, (iii) the governance mechanisms steering advisory services reveal the social relations between the stakeholders and influence the content of the advice, and (iv) the funding mechanisms are pivotal in defining the rules of governance. Lessons learned are drawn from this analysis that may serve to support advisory services. © 2011 Wageningen University. Source


Frenoux C.M.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Tsitsikalis A.,Gret
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | Year: 2015

Over the past decades, in developing countries, several urban sanitation management models have been promoted, showing various results, often poor, as regards reducing negative environmental, public health impacts and in reaching access to sanitation for all. Many studies and reports highlight that solutions should be found by promotion of on-site and decentralized sanitation approaches including fecal sludge management (FSM). However, few papers have either offered a comprehensive analysis of FSM services, regarding both demand from households and services provision from public and/or private operators. Based on field research in Cambodia, this paper aims to fill this gap. It is built on a large survey conducted in three cities in 2011. Results showed that the Cambodian FSM sector is dominated by private mechanical extraction and transportation operators (ETO). The FSM market looks economically efficient with reasonable fees. It also offers a reasonably high level of service quality including profitability of businesses, although the FSM market is also characterized by strong negative environmental externalities that are not considered. Consequently, this paper advocates an integrated urban sanitation approach that aims at exploring in more detail how to integrate gradually and complementarily private mechanical ETOs and households practices into a more complex sanitation urban model raising the key issue of financing the externalities’ costs. © IWA Publishing 2015 Source


Doan T.T.,IRD Montpellier | Bouvier C.,Montpellier University | Bettarel Y.,Montpellier University | Bouvier T.,Montpellier University | And 6 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2014

Vermicompost and biochar amendments are management practices which may contribute to sustainable agroecosystems by reducing dependence on inorganic fertilizers. However, little is known about their impacts on soil microorganisms and their transfer and evolution in connected aquatic systems. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of organic manure (buffalo manure, compost or vermicompost) and biochar amendments on bacterial and viral properties in soil and water. A three year experiment was carried out with terrestrial mesocosms which were used to test the effect of organic matter amendment on maize growth. In the last year of the experiment, runoff and infiltration waters from the terrestrial mesocosms were transferred to aquatic mesocosms. Organic fertilization improved soil properties (higher C, N content and pHH2O) and as a consequence increased soil bacterial and viral abundance. Bacterial diversity (Shannon '. H' and richness '. S' indices calculated from DGGE fingerprint) was also enhanced after the continuous application of organic amendments. Compared with compost, vermicompost reduced viral abundance and S but similar H and bacterial abundance were observed. The pHH2O, C content and bacterial and viral abundance increased in the aquatic mesocosms following organic fertilization. As a consequence, bacterial and viral diversity also increased in the water, although no differences were found between compost and vermicompost. Biochar increased soil bacterial abundance for the mineral fertilizer treatment but did not influence bacterial and viral abundance in water. However, the combination of biochar and vermicompost led to an increase of viruses in soil and a reduction of bacteria in water. Similarity dendrograms from the DGGE banding patterns showed that the structure of bacterial communities was mainly influenced by the fertilizer treatments in soil but by the presence of biochar in water. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the nature of the organic amendment has important consequences on both soil and water microbial abundance and diversity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Pedregal V.D.,Gret | Ozcaglar-Toulouse N.,University of Lille Nord de France
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2011

Current statistics show that more than three out of four people in France have heard about fair trade. However, fair trade goods are purchased in significantly higher proportions by executive class people, individuals with a postgraduate education, urban dwellers and high-income earners. Why does not everybody purchase fair trade products? An important question follows: is fair trade not really fair for consumers? This paper seeks to gain deeper insight into what social features give rise to the consumption of fair trade goods using quantitative and qualitative data to verify the reasons for which fair trade goods are consumed by particular groups in society. It shows that the lack of access to information and financial resources can explain consumers' refusal to purchase fair trade products. But this explanation is incomplete, as the meaning given by consumers to their consumption appears to be a key-factor to understand their behaviour: refusing to buy fair trade goods can be a deliberate choice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Karsenty A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Vogel A.,Gret | Castell F.,Gret
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2014

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) has become a central dimension of the contemporary international forest regime. The mechanism seeks to reward actors for keeping or restoring forests as a means to reduce carbon emissions. Carbon rights, here understood as title to carbon credits, have an odd status in the REDD+ debate. They are closely associated with the belief that REDD+ will generate (economic) "rents" - i.e. revenues exceeding the full cost of the corresponding effort - which means framing the discussion in terms of entitlement to revenues beyond mere financial compensations. We suggest that, in an "ideal" REDD+ scheme, the possibility of obtaining rents in REDD+ would be very limited. In the real world, rent could be created by strategic behaviours by setting a reference emission level (what would occur under a business-as-usual scenario) and by possible acceptance, for political reasons, of inappropriate rules such as being remunerated for the full stock of carbon. The carbon rights rhetoric leads to rent-seeking since remunerations could be disconnected from the active contribution to the production of emission reductions, which is a public good by nature. Another interpretation of carbon rights is the right to benefit from the sale of carbon credits, a framework within which what is at stake is sharing the benefits deriving from the human production and the sale of these benefits, a traditional social issue. In this case, we argue, the concept of carbon rights is useless and even misleading. Compensating for easements would be a more appropriate framework for designing incentive schemes such as payments for environmental services (PES). Reforming land tenure codes to allow individuals, families and communities to claim property or collective tenure rights on the land and the trees is the issue that matters in order to start tackling fairness in REDD+ and PES initiatives. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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