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Miano S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Castaldo R.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Ferri R.,Oasi Institute for Research on Mental Retardation and Brain Aging IRCCS | Peraita-Adrados R.,University Hospital Gregorio Maranon | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2012

Objective: Non-REM sleep is characterized by a physiologic oscillating pattern that exhibits different levels of arousal, coded as cyclic alternating pattern. The aim of this study was to analyze the development of cyclic alternating pattern parameters in a group of infants with apparent life-threatening events. Methods: A total of 26 infants with apparent life-threatening events (14 females, mean age 3.4. months, 2.37 S.D., age range 0.5-9. months) were studied while they slept in the morning between feedings, by means of a 3-h video-electroencephalographic-polygraphic recording. Sleep was visually scored using standard criteria. The control group was composed of 36 healthy infants (16 females, mean age 3.2. months, 2.17 S.D., age range 0.5-9. months). Results: Children with apparent life-threatening events showed an increased frequency of periodic breathing, gastroesofageal reflux and of other risk conditions. They presented also an increased obstructive apnoea/hypopnea index. A full NREM sleep development was found in a significantly smaller percentage of patients, and they showed a significant reduction of the percentage of REM sleep, of cyclic alternating pattern A1 subtypes, an increased percentage of A2 and A3 subtypes and increased index of A2, A3 subtypes and arousal, compared to normal controls. Cyclic alternating pattern rate showed a significant positive correlation with age, only in controls. Conclusions: Our results show a higher level of arousal and an increased non-REM sleep discontinuity in babies with apparent life-threatening events, compared to controls. Significance: The enhanced mechanism of arousal might counteract life-threatening events and represent an important neurophysiologic distinction from future victims of sudden infant death syndrome who also experience similar events. © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Source

Serrano-Villar S.,University Hospital Ramon jal | Perez-Elias M.J.,University Hospital Ramon jal | Dronda F.,University Hospital Ramon jal | Casado J.L.,University Hospital Ramon jal | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: A low CD4/CD8 ratio has been identified in the general population as a hallmark of inmmunosenescence and a surrogate of all-cause mortality. We aimed to investigate in treated HIV-infected individuals the relationship between the CD4/CD8 ratio and serious non-AIDS events. Methods: Case-control study within a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-infected subjects during at least one year of ART-mediated viral suppression. Cases were patients with serious non-AIDS events (non-AIDS malignancies, cardiovascular disease, and end-stage kidney disease), and controls individuals who did not developed non-AIDS events during follow-up. Data were analyzed using ROC analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Conditional logistic regression was performed in 200 cases/controls matched by age, sex, nadir CD4 and proximal CD4 counts. Results: We analyzed 407 subjects (109 cases, 298 controls). The CD4/CD8 ratio was lower in cases (0.44 vs. 0.70, P<0.0001), with higher discriminatory ability for the detection of non-AIDS events than the CD4 count, CD8 count and nadir CD4. Multivariate analyses (adjusted for age, sex, nadir CD4, proximal CD4 count, year of ART initiation and ART duration) confirmed the independent association of a low CD4/CD8 ratio with the risk of non-AIDS morbidity (per CD4/CD8 ratio quartile decrease, OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.2) and non-AIDS mortality (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.3). Conclusions: The CD4/CD8 ratio provides additional information to the CD4 counts and nadir CD4 in treated HIV-infected individuals, since it is independently associated with the risk of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. This association is robust and maintained within different subgroups of patients. © 2014 Serrano-Villar et al. Source

Capa-Grasa A.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Rojo-Manaute J.M.,Point University | Rodriguez F.C.,University Hospital Gregorio Maranon | Martin J.V.,University Hospital Gregorio Maranon
Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research | Year: 2014

Background: Authors have reported better outcomes, by reducing surgical dissection for carpal tunnel syndromes requiring surgery. Recently, a new sonographically guided technique for ultra minimally invasive (Ultra-MIS) carpal tunnel release (CTR) through 1. mm incision has been described. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a clinical trial for comparing Ultra-MIS versus Mini-open Carpal Tunnel Release (Mini-OCTR) was feasible. Materials and methods: To test our hypothesis, we conducted a pilot study for studying Ultra-MIS versus Mini-OCTR respectively performed through a 1. mm or a 2. cm incision. We defined success if primary feasibility objectives (safety and efficacy) as well as secondary feasibility objectives (recruitment rates, compliance, completion, treatment blinding, personnel resources and sample size calculation for the clinical trial) could be matched. Score for Quick-DASH questionnaire at final follow-up was studied as the primary variable for the clinical trial. Turnover times were studied for assessing learning curve stability. Results: Forty patients were allotted. Primary and secondary feasibility objectives were matched with the following occurrences: 70.2% of eligible patients finally recruited; 4.2% of randomization refusals; 26.6 patients/month recruited; 100% patients receiving a blinded treatment; 97.5% compliance and 100% completion. A sample size of 91 patients was calculated for clinical trial validation. At final follow-up, preliminary results for Quick-Dash substantially favored Ultra-MIS over Mini-OCTR (average 14.54 versus 7.39) and complication rates were lower for Ultra-MIS (5% versus 20%). A stable learning curve was observed for both groups. Conclusions: The clinical trial is feasible. There is currently no evidence to contraindicate nor withhold the use of Ultra-MIS for CTR. Level of evidence: III. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Rojo-Manaute J.M.,University Hospital Gregorio Maranon | Rodriguez-Maruri G.,University Hospital Gregorio Maranon | Capa-Grasa A.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Chana-Rodriguez F.,University Hospital Gregorio Maranon | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives-For trigger digits, intrasheath sonographically guided first annular (A1) pulley release has shown safety and effectiveness in cadavers. This clinical study describes sonographically guided A1 pulley release results in terms of resolution of symptoms, safety, and functional recovery. Methods-Sonographically guided A1 pulley release (11-MHz probe) was used in 48 digits of 48 patients prospectively followed for 11.3 months and examined 1, 3, and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 year later. Resolution of triggering (primary variable of interest) was expressed as the "success rate" per digit. The time for taking postoperative pain killers, range of motion recovery, grip strength, QuickDASH test scores, return to normal activities (including work), cosmetic results, satisfaction, and complications were assessed. Results-The success rate was 100%, and no cases recurred. Mean times were 1.9 days for taking pain killers, 6.6 days for returning to normal activities, and 9.9 and 3.8 days for complete extension and flexion recovery, respectively. Mean QuickDASH scores were 39.8 preoperatively and 7.8, 1.7, and 0 after 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Grip strength reached greater than 90% of the individual's normal strength by the sixth week in men and by the third month in women (P<.001). Radial digital nerve numbness developed in 1 finger, which disappeared by the third week. No other complications were noted. All wounds were cosmetically excellent, and final satisfaction was excellent or good in 98%. Conclusions-With adequate anatomic knowledge, technical training, and a basic ultrasound machine, sonographically guided A1 pulley release can be performed safely and successfully, offering an alternative to classic open surgery in the ambulatory setting. © 2012 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. Source

Rojo-Manaute J.M.,University Hospital Gregorio Maranon | Capa-Grasa A.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Del Cerro-Gutierrez M.,University Hospital Gregorio Maranon | Martinez M.V.,University Hospital Gregorio Maranon | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives-Trigger digit surgery can be performed by an open approach using classic open surgery, by a wide-awake approach, or by sonographically guided first annular pulley release in day surgery and office-based ambulatory settings. Our goal was to perform a turnover and economic analysis of 3 surgical models. Methods-Two studies were conducted. The first was a turnover analysis of 57 patients allocated 4:4:1 into the surgical models: sonographically guided-office-based, classic open-day surgery, and wide-awake-office-based. Regression analysis for the turnover time was monitored for assessing stability (R2 <.26). Second, on the basis of turnover times and hospital tariff revenues, we calculated the total costs, income to cost ratio, opportunity cost, true cost, true net income (primary variable), break-even points for sonographically guided fixed costs, and 1-way analysis for identifying thresholds among alternatives. Results-Thirteen sonographically guided-office-based patients were withdrawn because of a learning curve influence. The wide-awake (n = 6) and classic (n = 26) models were compared to the last 25% of the sonographically guided group (n = 12), which showed significantly less mean turnover times, income to cost ratios 2.52 and 10.9 times larger, and true costs 75.48 and 20.92 times lower, respectively. A true net income breakeven point happened after 19.78 sonographically guided-office-based procedures. Sensitivity analysis showed a threshold between wide-awake and last 25% sonographically guided true costs if the last 25% sonographically guided turnover times reached 65.23 and 27.81 minutes, respectively. However, this trial was underpowered. Conclusions-This trial comparing surgical models was underpowered and is inconclusive on turnover times; however, the sonographically guided-office-based approach showed shorter turnover times and better economic results with a quick recoup of the costs of sonographically assisted surgery. © 2012 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. Source

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