Greenway Energy LLC

Aiken, United States

Greenway Energy LLC

Aiken, United States
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Martinez-Rodriguez M.J.,Greenway Energy LLC | Martinez-Rodriguez M.J.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Fox E.B.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Rhodes W.D.,Savannah River National Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2011

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells use components that are susceptible to contaminants in the fuel stream. To ensure fuel quality, standards are being set to regulate the amount of impurities allowable in fuel. The present study investigates the effect of chlorinated impurities on fuel cell systems using tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as a model compound for cleaning and degreasing agents. Concentrations between 0.05 parts per million (ppm) and 30 ppm were studied. We show how PCE causes rapid drop in cell performances for all concentrations including 0.05 ppm. At concentrations of 1 and 0.05 ppm, PCE poisoned the cell at a rate dependent on the dosage of the contaminant delivered to the cell. PCE appears to affect the cell when the cell potential was over potentials higher than approximately 0.2 V. No effects were observed at voltages around or below 0.2 V and the cells could be recovered from previous poisoning performed at higher potentials. Recoveries at those low voltages could be induced by changing the operating voltage or by purging the system. Poisoning did not appear to affect the membrane conductivity. Measurements with long-path length IR results suggested catalytic decomposition of the PCE by hydrogen over the anode catalyst. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.


Nakano A.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Ito H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Maeda T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Munakata T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

AIST and SRNL have engaged in a joint research project on a Totalized Hydrogen Energy Utilization System (THEUS) under the clean energy partnership technology program between METI and DOE. THEUS makes use of a novel unitized reversible fuel cell and metal hydride tanks. A horizontal metal hydride tank with a double coil type heat exchanger was developed and connected to the hydrogen system, which was comprised of solar panels, a water electrolyzer, and a fuel cell, etc. in SRNL. The absorption characteristic of the metal hydride tank with the intermittent hydrogen production rate from the electrolyzer, and the desorption characteristic of the tank with the fuel cell were experimentally investigated. It was confirmed that the reaction heat recovery rates of the metal hydride tank was almost 100% in case of absorption, and it was 96% in case of desorption. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Corgnale C.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Motyka T.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Greenway S.,Greenway Energy LLC | Perez-Berrios J.M.,Greenway Energy LLC | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

A Regenerative Fuel Cell system, driven by renewable energy sources, has the potential to overcome the intermittent nature of renewable energy and become a reliable and feasible solution for small power stationary systems, producing electricity without pollutants. The present work describes a new system model for a metal hydride hydrogen storage bed (based on an AB5-type material) integrated into a Regenerative Fuel Cell system. The model has been validated against experimental data obtained from a Savannah River National Laboratory metal hydride bed at different operating conditions and has been integrated into a Regenerative Fuel Cell system using TRNSYS® to simulate the behavior of the overall system for selected scenarios. Results show the technical feasibility of the Regenerative Fuel Cell concept with short term energy storage (i.e. hydrogen storage) and suggest useful solutions to make the system adaptable to long term storage scenarios as well. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Teprovich J.A.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Zhang J.,CNRS East Paris Institute of Chemistry and Materials Science | Colon-Mercado H.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Cuevas F.,CNRS East Paris Institute of Chemistry and Materials Science | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2015

The conversion reaction of AlH3, LiAlH4, and NaAlH4 complex hydrides with lithium has been examined electrochemically. All compounds undergo a conversion reaction in which one equivalent of LiH is formed for each equivalent of hydrogen contained in the hydride material. Decomposition of the hydrides follows different paths depending on the nature of the alkali metal but leads in all cases to pure metallic aluminum. Such very fine and reactive Al particles are able to readily form an alloy with Li at a lower potential. Alternatively, thermal decomposition of alane has been used to produce highly porous aluminum able to react with lithium to form the AlLi alloy directly. Constant current charge/discharge cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and in-operando XRD were utilized to characterize the performance of these materials and to interpret the reaction paths depending of the complex hydride compositions. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Nakano A.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Ito H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Bhogilla S.S.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Motyka T.,Savannah River National Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2015

A metal hydride tank has been developed with the aim of recovering the reaction heat of a metal hydride for the Totalized Hydrogen Energy Utilization System application. The metal hydride tank, which had the same geometrical configuration as one previously evaluated at SRNL, was fabricate with a different composition of the metal hydride alloy for operation below 1.0 MPa (Gauge). The hydrogen mass flow data from hydrogen production by renewable energy (solar power) and the fuel cell operation, which were obtained at SRNL, were used for the testing at AIST. The relatively large heat leak from the tank support of the metal hydride tank at SRNL was confirmed, and thus the tank support was replaced in this work. Furthermore, a vacuum thermal insulator was developed and applied to the metal hydride tank. This resulted in overall tank size reduction without reducing the thermal insulation performance. © 2015 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.


Nakano A.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Ito H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Motyka T.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Corgnale C.,Savannah River National Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, WHEC 2014 | Year: 2014

A metal hydride tank was developed with the aim of recovering the reaction heat of metal hydride. A double coil type heat exchanger was installed in the metal hydride tank which had a complex internal structure. Therefore this complicated our efforts to carry out the direct numerical simulation. In this study, a simple cylindrical straight metal hydride tank model was adopted. The simulation code was applied to a metal hydride tank prepared for the experiments at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). A pseudo thermal conductivity was assessed for the metal hydride alloy layer by preliminary numerical simulations using the experimental data from the circulation water outlet temperature. Thus the pseudo thermal conductivity was determined using a fitting parameter. The numerical simulations of the tank pressure were compared with the experimental data. They agreed with experimental results from individual absorption-desorption tests. The simulation code was also applied to the continuous absorption-desorption tests. The numerical simulation results of the circulation water outlet temperature are in acceptable agreement with the experimental data, but the results from the tank pressure simulation were well reproduced by the experimental data. Copyright © (2014) by the Committee of WHEC2014 All rights reserved.


Teprovich J.A.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Colon-Mercado H.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Washington Ii A.L.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Ward P.A.,Savannah River National Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2015

Our investigation of the chemical and physical properties of the alkali-metal dodecahydro-closo-dodecaborate, Li2B12H12, determined that it is a bi-functional material that can be used as a solid state electrolyte in lithium ion batteries and as a luminescent down conversion dye in scalable transparent displays. A series of electrochemical measurements of morphologically altered samples, via mechanical milling, was conducted. The measurements indicated that mechanical alternations of the Li2B12H12 morphology makes it an excellent lithium ion conductor in the solid state with exceptional ionic conductivity at room temperature (0.31 mS cm-1) and is compatible with a metallic lithium electrode up to 6.0 V. In addition, all solid state half and full electrochemical cells were assembled and successfully cycled using Li2B12H12 as a solid state electrolyte at temperatures as low as 30 °C with good capacity retention. The photophysical properties of Li2B12H12 were also investigated. Li2B12H12 has an emission maximum of ∼460 nm in a variety of solvents with Stokes' shifts up to 175 nm observed. Li2B12H12 was incorporated in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin film to demonstrate its application as a luminescent down-conversion dye in a transparent head-up display when excited by a UV projection source. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Colon-Mercado H.R.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Colon-Mercado H.R.,Greenway Energy LLC | Fox E.B.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Fox E.B.,Greenway Energy LLC | And 4 more authors.
ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts | Year: 2011

Stationary power generation fuel cells are being seen as one of the most promising entry markets for the widespread deployment of fuel cells. Because of the possibility of being able to use combined heat and power, high temperature operating PEM fuel cells (>120 °C) are preferred for stationary applications. However, high temperature fuel cells share similar but more rapid degradation mechanisms as low temperature systems. The presented research focuses on the development and characterization of catalyst layers and systems for high temperature applications. The main goal of the proposed work is to prepare low cost, high performance stable catalysts for high temperature electrochemical systems. The interactions between the PEM and catalyst layers with noble metal catalyst systems on nanotube supports will be examined and optimized. The data generated on support stability, conductivity, and catalytic activity will be used to produce and design the next generation of catalyst layers with higher resistant to oxidation, enhance the system conductivity, and reduce the poisoning of catalyst particles.


Colon-Mercado H.R.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Colon-Mercado H.R.,Greenway Energy LLC | Fox E.B.,Savannah River National Laboratory | Fox E.B.,Greenway Energy LLC | And 6 more authors.
ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts | Year: 2011

Regulating levels of hydrogen impurities to allow inexpensive purification of hydrogen and to maximize fuel cell system lifetimes is a delicate balance. Detailed testing of fuel cell systems at low impurity levels to understand degradation mechanisms and rates is required to set standards at levels acceptable to hydrogen producers as well as gas suppliers and distributors. As part of the DOE hydrogen quality working group, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been quantifying PEM performance degradation for a variety of impurities including ammonia and chlorinated hydrocarbons at the levels proposed by the International Standards Organization (ISO).

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