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Sabapathy A.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd and 90 Hosur Road | Maithel S.,Greentech Knowledge Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
Building and Environment | Year: 2013

Building construction in India is estimated to grow at a rate of 6.6% per year between 2005 and 2030 resulting in a continuous increase in demand for building materials. Fired clay bricks are the most widely-used walling materials in the country. However, over the past few decades, the development of other materials such as concrete blocks, fly ash bricks, stabilized mud blocks, etc., has created viable alternatives to bricks. There is limited understanding of the broader environmental consequences of these building materials addressing natural resource depletion, energy, environment and socio-economic impacts. The main objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive assessment of materials used for wall construction by comparing one square meter of constructed wall for each of the materials. A composite Environmental Index was developed by weighting and aggregating normalized numerical scores of several parameters making use of a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework. The Environmental Index was then ranked to determine walling systems that are best suited in the context of India. Our analysis shows that wall assemblies that use non-fired products as masonry units are ranked higher compared to fired masonry unit wall assemblies. Clay fired masonry wall assemblies exhibit poorer environmental performance compared to non-fired masonry wall assemblies. When a more efficient form of construction such as the Rat-trap bond wall construction is considered, the environmental performance of clay fired brick walls is significantly improved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Weyant C.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Athalye V.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Ragavan S.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Rajarathnam U.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Thirteen South Asian brick kilns were tested to quantify aerosol and gaseous pollutant emissions. Particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and optical scattering and absorption measurements in the exhaust of six kiln technologies demonstrate differences in overall emission profiles and relative climate warming resulting from kiln design and fuel choice. Emission factors differed between kiln types, in some cases by an order of magnitude. The kilns currently dominating the sector had the highest emission factors of PM2.5 and light absorbing carbon, while improved Vertical Shaft and Tunnel kilns were lower emitters. An improved version of the most common technology in the region, the zig-zag kiln, was among the lowest emitting kilns in PM2.5, CO, and light absorbing carbon. Emission factors measured here are lower than those currently used in emission inventories as inputs to global climate models; 85% lower (PM2.5) and 35% lower for elemental carbon (EC) for the most common kiln in the region, yet the ratio of EC to total carbon was higher than previously estimated (0.96 compared to 0.47). Total annual estimated emissions from the brick industry are 120 Tg CO 2, 2.5 Tg CO, 0.19 Tg PM2.5, and 0.12 Tg EC. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Rajarathnam U.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Athalye V.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Ragavan S.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Maithel S.,Greentech Knowledge Solutions Pvt. Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Jaboyedoff P.,EffinArt | Cusack K.,EffinArt | Bhanware P.,Greentech Knowledge Solutions Pvt. Ltd. | Ganesan K.,Greentech Knowledge Solutions Pvt. Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
14th International Conference of IBPSA - Building Simulation 2015, BS 2015, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

Results of monitoring of electricity consumption in typical multi-storey residential flats in the composite climate region of India, have shown that 30-60% of the annual electricity consumption is used for space conditioning, mainly cooling of bedrooms and living room. Most of the cooling load in the residential buildings originates from solar heat gains and heat transmission through the envelope (through windows, walls, and roof). Thus, special attention is needed to reduce solar heat gains and heat transmission through improved building envelope. Until recently, the passive heat gains were overlooked. This study aims as demonstrating the importance of passive features on reducint the gross thermal cooling energy demand. This paper discusses the results of the thermal performance (performed using TRNSYS 17 software) and daylighting analysis (performed using ReluxPro Professional software) of typical bedroom and living room cases. The paper discusses the impact of various building envelope features on the gross thermal cooling energy through parametric simulation analysis. The analysis includes parametric analysis of window to wall ratio, external wall to floor- Area ratio, wall insulation, external finish of the wall, window design, and shading systems, on the thermal performance and daylighting of the building, and provides recommendations from an energy-efficiency perspective. The potential of gross thermal cooling energy reduction is of 23-56% depending of the package of measures. The tool used was the Parametric Generator developed under VBA in the Excel environment. This work was carried out under the Indo-Swiss Building Energy Efficiency Project (BEEP) and resulted in the development of guidelines for the design of energy efficient residential buildings for composite climatic regions of India (BEE, 2014). Source

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