GreenGene BioTech Inc.

Yongin, South Korea

GreenGene BioTech Inc.

Yongin, South Korea
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Park S.-H.,Myongji University | Chung P.J.,Myongji University | Chung P.J.,Rockefeller University | Juntawong P.,University of California at Riverside | And 8 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

Abiotic stress, including drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, regulates gene expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels Expression profiling of total messenger RNAs (mRNAs) from rice (Oryza sativa) leaves grown under stress conditions revealed that the transcript levels of photosynthetic genes are reduced more rapidly than others, a phenomenon referred to as stress-induced mRNA decay (SMD). By comparing RNA polymerase II engagement with the steady-state mRNA level, we show here that SMD is a posttranscriptional event The SMD of photosynthetic genes was further verified by measuring the half-lives of the small subunit of Rubisco (RbcS1) and Chlorophyll a/b-Binding Protein1 (Cab1) mRNAs during stress conditions in the presence of the transcription inhibitor cordycepin To discern any correlation between SMD and the process of translation, changes in total and polysome-associated mRNA levels after stress were measured Total and polysome-associated mRNA levels of two photosynthetic (RbcS1 and Cab1) and two stress-inducible (Dehydration Stress-Inducible Protein1 and Salt-Induced Protein) genes were found to be markedly similar This demonstrated the importance of polysome association for transcript stability under stress conditions Microarray experiments performed on total and polysomal mRNAs indicate that approximately half of all mRNAs that undergo SMD remain polysome associated during stress treatments To delineate the functional determinant(s) of mRNAs responsible for SMD, the RbcS1 and Cab1 transcripts were dissected into several components The expressions of different combinations of the mRNA components were analyzed under stress conditions, revealing that both 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions are necessary for SMD Our results, therefore, suggest that the posttranscriptional control of photosynthetic mRNA decay under stress conditions requires both 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions and correlates with differential polysome association. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Dong X.,Chungnam National University | Kim W.K.,Woori Seed Co. | Lim Y.-P.,Chungnam National University | Kim Y.-K.,GreenGene BioTech Inc. | Hur Y.,Chungnam National University
Plant Science | Year: 2013

We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3. mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Abbasi N.,Myongji University | Kim H.B.,Myongji University | Park N.-I.,Myongji University | Kim H.-S.,Myongji University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2010

Pumilio, an RNA-binding protein that contains tandemly repeated Puf domains, is known to repress translational activity in early embryogenesis and polarized cells of non-plant species. Although Pumilio proteins have been characterized in many eukaryotes, their role in plants is unknown. In the present study, we characterized an Arabidopsis Pumilio-encoding gene, APUM23. APUM23 is constitutively expressed, with higher levels in metabolically active tissues, and its expression is up-regulated in the presence of either glucose or sucrose. The T-DNA insertion mutants apum23-1 and apum23-2 showed slow growth, with serrated and scrunched leaves, an abnormal venation pattern, and distorted organization of the palisade parenchyma cells - a phenotype that is reminiscent of nucleolin and ribosomal protein gene mutants. Intracellular localization studies indicate that APUM23 predominantly localizes to the nucleolus. Based on this localization, rRNA processing was examined. In apum23, 35S pre-rRNA, and unprocessed 18S and 5.8S poly(A) rRNAs, accumulated without affecting the steady-state levels of mature rRNAs, indicating that APUM23 is involved in the processing and/or degradation of 35S pre-rRNA and rRNA maturation by-products. The apum23 mutant showed increased levels of 18S rRNA biogenesis-related U3 and U14 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and accumulated RNAs within the nucleolus. Our data suggest that APUM23 plays an important role in plant development via rRNA processing. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PubMed | GreenGene BioTech Inc., Chungnam National University and Sunchon National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Genome wide transcription analysis in response to stresses is important to provide a basis of effective engineering strategies to improve stress tolerance in crop plants. We assembled a Brassica rapa oligomeric microarray (Br135K microarray) using sequence information from 41,173 unigenes and analyzed the transcription profiles of two contrasting doubled haploid (DH) lines, Chiifu and Kenshin, under cold-treatments. The two DH lines showed great differences in electrolyte leakage below -4C, but similar patterns from 4C to -2C. Cold-treatments induced 885 and 858 genes in Chiifu and Kenshin, respectively. Overall, 134, and 56 genes showed an intrinsic difference in expression in Chiifu and Kenshin, respectively. Among 5,349 genes that showed no hit found (NHF) in public databases, 61 and 24 were specifically expressed in Chiifu and Kenshin, respectively. Many transcription factor genes (TFs) also showed various characteristics of expression. BrMYB12, BrMYBL2, BrbHLHs, BrbHLH038, a C2H2, a WRKY, BrDREB19 and a integrase-type TF were induced in a Chiifu-specific fashion, while a bHLH (Bra001826/AT3G21330), bHLH, cycling Dof factor and two Dof type TFs were Kenshin specific. Similar to previous studies, a large number of genes were differently induced or regulated among the two genotypes, but many genes, including NHFs, were specifically or intrinsically expressed with genotype specificity. Expression patterns of known-cold responsive genes in plants resulted in discrepancy to membrane leakage in the two DH lines, indicating that timing of gene expression is more important to conferring freezing tolerance rather than expression levels. Otherwise, the tolerance will be related to the levels of transcripts before cold-treatment or regulated by other mechanisms. Overall, these results indicate common signaling pathways and various transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are working together during cold-treatment of B. rapa. Our newly developed Br135K oligomeric microarray will be useful for transcriptome profiling, and will deliver valuable insight into cold stresses in B. rapa.

Oh H.-M.,Seoul National University | Oh H.-M.,Inha University | Cho Y.-J.,Seoul National University | Kim B.K.,Seoul National University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2010

Leuconostoc kimchii IMSNU 11154, isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food, is known to be an important antimicrobial lactic acid bacterium with probiotic potential. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of L. kimchii IMSNU 11154 consisting of a 2,101,787-bp chromosome and five plasmids. The strain has genes for dextran formation from sucrose and for mannitol formation from fructose. Antimicrobial and antioxidative functions of L. kimchii IMSNU 11154 could be attributed to a leucosin B-like peptide and multiple enzymes to reduce hydrogen peroxide and oxidized thiols, respectively. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Seo J.-S.,Seoul National University | Joo J.,Korea University | Kim M.-J.,Seoul National University | Kim M.-J.,GreenGene BioTech Inc. | And 8 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2011

Jasmonates play important roles in development, stress responses and defense in plants. Here, we report the results of a study using a functional genomics approach that identified a rice basic helix-loop-helix domain gene, OsbHLH148, that conferred drought tolerance as a component of the jasmonate signaling module in rice. OsbHLH148 transcript levels were rapidly increased by treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or abscisic acid, and abiotic stresses including dehydration, high salinity, low temperature and wounding. Transgenic over-expression of OsbHLH148 in rice confers plant tolerance to drought stress. Expression profiling followed by DNA microarray and RNA gel-blot analyses of transgenic versus wild-type rice identified genes that are up-regulated by OsbHLH148 over-expression. These include OsDREB and OsJAZ genes that are involved in stress responses and the jasmonate signaling pathway, respectively. OsJAZ1, a rice ZIM domain protein, interacted with OsbHLH148 in yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays, but it interacted with the putative OsCOI1 only in the presence of coronatine. Furthermore, the OsJAZ1 protein was degraded by rice and Arabidopsis extracts in the presence of coronatine, and its degradation was inhibited by MG132, a 26S proteasome inhibitor, suggesting 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of OsJAZ1 via the SCFOsCOI1 complex. The transcription level of OsJAZ1 increased upon exposure of rice to MeJA. These results show that OsJAZ1 could act as a transcriptional regulator of the OsbHLH148-related jasmonate signaling pathway leading to drought tolerance. Thus, our study suggests that OsbHLH148 acts on an initial response of jasmonate-regulated gene expression toward drought tolerance, constituting the OsbHLH148-OsJAZ-OsCOI1 signaling module in rice. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Minh-Thu P.-T.,Myongji University | Hwang D.-J.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Jeon J.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Nahm B.H.,Myongji University | And 2 more authors.
Rice | Year: 2013

Background: Water deficiency is one of the most serious worldwide problems for agriculture. Recently, it has become more serious and outspread, which urgently requires the production of drought-tolerant plants. Microarray experiments using mRNA from air-dried leaves and roots of rice were performed in an attempt to study genes involved in acute dehydration response. Results: Set of 10,537 rice genes was significantly up- or down-regulated in leaves or roots under the treatment. Gene Ontology analysis highlighted gene expression during acute dehydration response depending on organ types and the duration of stress. Rice responded by down-regulating many processes which are mainly involved in inhibiting growth and development. On the other hand, phytohormones (ABA, cytokinin, brassinosteroid) and protective molecules were induced to answer to multiple stresses. Leaves induced more genes than roots but those genes were scattered in various processes, most significantly were productions of osmoprotectants and precursors for important pathways in roots. Roots up-regulated fewer genes and focused on inducing antioxidants and enhancing photosynthesis. Myb, zf-C3HC4, and NAM were most strongly affected transcription factors with the dominance of leaf over root. Conclusions: Leaf and root tissues shared some common gene expression during stress, with the purpose of enhancing protective systems. However, these two tissues appeared to act differently in response to the different level of dehydration they experience. Besides, they can affect each other via the signaling and transportation system. © 2013 Minh-Thu et al.

PubMed | GreenGene BioTech Inc., Mokpo National University and Myongji University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry | Year: 2014

Galbonolide (GAL) A and B are antifungal macrolactone polyketides produced by Streptomyces galbus. During their polyketide chain assembly, GAL-A and -B incorporate methoxymalonate and methylmalonate, respectively, in the fourth chain extension step. The methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein biosynthesis locus (galG to K) is specifically involved in GAL-A biosynthesis, and this locus is neighbored by a gene cluster composed of galA-E. GalA-C constitute a single module, highly reducing type I polyketide synthase (PKS). GalD and GalE are cytochrome P450 and Rieske domain protein, respectively. Gene knock-out experiments verified that galB, -C, and -D are essential for GAL biosynthesis. A galD mutant accumulated a GAL-C that lacked two hydroxyl groups and a double bond when compared with GAL-B. A [U-(13)C]propionate feeding experiment indicated that no rare precursor other than methoxymalonate was incorporated during GAL biogenesis. A search of the S. galbus genome for a modular type I PKS system, the type that was expected to direct GAL biosynthesis, resulted in the identification of only one modular type I PKS gene cluster. Homology analysis indicated that this PKS gene cluster is the locus for vicenistatin biosynthesis. This cluster was previously reported in Streptomyces halstedii. A gene deletion of the vinP2 ortholog clearly demonstrated that this modular type I PKS system is not involved in GAL biosynthesis. Therefore, we propose that GalA-C direct macrolactone polyketide formation for GAL. Our studies provide a glimpse into a novel biochemical strategy used for polyketide synthesis; that is, the iterative assembly of propionates with highly programmed -keto group modifications.

Joo J.,Myongji University | Choi H.J.,Myongji University | Lee Y.H.,Myongji University | Kim Y.-K.,GreenGene BioTech Inc. | Song S.I.,Myongji University
Planta | Year: 2013

Plant-specific ethylene response factors (ERFs) play important roles in abiotic and biotic stress responses in plants. Using a transgenic approach, we identified two rice ERF genes, OsERF4a and OsERF10a, which conferred drought stress tolerance. In particular, OsERF4a contains a conserved ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in its C-terminal region that has been shown to function as a transcriptional repression domain. Expression profiling of transgenic rice plants over-expressing OsERF4a using either a constitutively active or an ABA-inducible promoter identified 45 down-regulated and 79 up-regulated genes in common. The increased stress tolerance by over-expression of the EAR domain-containing protein OsERF4a could result from suppression of a repressor of the defense response. Expression of the putative silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) repressor protein was repressed, and expression of several stress-response genes were induced by OsERF4a over-expression. The Sir2 and 7 out of 9 genes that were down-regulated by OsERF4a over-expression were induced by high salinity and drought treatments in non-transgenic control plants. Genes that were down- and up-regulated by OsERF4a over-expression were highly biased toward chromosome 11. Rice chromosome 11 has several large clusters of disease-resistance and defense-response genes. Taken together, our results suggest that OsERF4a is a positive regulator of shoot growth and water-stress tolerance in rice during early growth stages. We propose that OsERF4a could work by suppressing a repressor of the defense responses and/or by controlling the expression of a large number of genes located on chromosome 11. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Joo J.,Myongji University | Lee Y.H.,Myongji University | Kim Y.-K.,GreenGene BioTech Inc. | Nahm B.H.,Myongji University | And 2 more authors.
Molecules and Cells | Year: 2013

The expression of the six rice ASR genes is differentially regulated in a tissue-dependent manner according to environmental conditions and reproductive stages. OsASR1 and OsASR3 are the most abundant and are found in most tissues; they are enriched in the leaves and roots, respectively. Coexpression analysis of OsASR1 and OsASR3 and a comparison of the cis-acting elements upstream of OsASR1 and OsASR3 suggested that their expression is regulated in common by abiotic stresses but differently regulated by hormone and sugar signals. The results of quantitative real-time PCR analyses of OsASR1 and OsASR3 expression under various conditions further support this model. The expression of both OsASR1 and OsASR3 was induced by drought stress, which is a major regulator of the expression of all ASR genes in rice. In contrast, ABA is not a common regulator of the expression of these genes. OsASR1 transcription was highly induced by ABA, whereas OsASR3 transcription was strongly induced by GA. In addition, OsASR1 and OsASR3 expression was significantly induced by sucrose and sucrose/glucose treatments, respectively. The induction of gene expression in response to these specific hormone and sugar signals was primarily observed in the major target tissues of these genes (i.e., OsASR1 in leaves and OsASR3 in roots). Our data also showed that the overexpression of either OsASR1 or OsASR3 in transgenic rice plants increased their tolerance to drought and cold stress. Taken together, our results revealed that the transcriptional control of different rice ASR genes exhibit different tissue-dependent sugar and hormone-sensitivities. © 2013 The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology and Springer Netherlands.

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