Incheon, South Korea
Incheon, South Korea

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Yoo J.,Korea University | Ahn B.,Korea University | Oh J.-J.,Green Pioneer | Han T.,Green Pioneer | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

A comprehensive toxicity monitoring study from August to October 2011 using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa was conducted to identify the cause of toxicity in a stream receiving industrial effluents (IEs) from a textile and leather products manufacturing complex. Acute toxicity toward both species was observed consistently in IE, which influenced toxicity of downstream (DS) water. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) confirmed that both Cu and Zn were key toxicants in the IE, and that the calculated toxicity based on Cu and Zn concentrations well simulated the variation in the observed toxicity (r2=0.9216 and 0.7256 for D. magna and U. pertusa, respectively). In particular, U. pertusa was sensitive enough to detect acute toxicity in DS and was useful to identify Zn as a key toxicant. Activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and malondialdehyde were induced significantly in D. magna, although acute toxicity was not observed. In addition, higher levels of antioxidant enzymes were expressed in DS than upstream waters, likely due to the Cu and Zn from IE. Overall, TIE procedures with a battery of bioassays were effective for identifying the cause of lethal and sub-lethal toxicity in effluent and stream water. © 2013 .

Han T.,Incheon National University | Kong J.-A.,Green Pioneer | Kang H.-G.,Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment | Kim S.-J.,Incheon National University | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2011

The sensitivity of early life stages of the brown seaweed Saccharina japonica to six metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) and two waste-water samples were investigated and a new toxicity bioassay developed. The two endpoints used were spore germination and germ tube elongation with an exposure time of 24 h. Optimal test conditions determined for photon irradiance, pH, salinity and temperature were darkness, pH 8, 35‰ and 15°C, respectively. The toxicity ranking of five metals was: Hg (EC 50 of 41 and 42 μg l -1) > Cu (120 and 81 μg l -1) > Ni (2,009 and 1,360 μg l -1) > Zn (3,024 and 3,897 μg l -1) > Pb (4,760 and 4,429 μg l -1) > Cd (15,052 and 7,541 μg l -1) for germination and germ tube elongation, respectively. The sensitivities to Cd, Cu and Ni were greater in germ tube elongation than in germination process. When tested against two different waste-water samples (processed animal and printed circuit board waste-water) values of EC 50 were between 21.29 and 32.02% for germination and between 5.33 and 8.98% for germ tube elongation. Despite differences in their chemical composition, the toxic effects of waste-water samples, as indicated by EC 50 values, did not differ significantly for the same endpoints. The CV range for both germination and germ tube elongation was between 4.61 and 37.69%, indicating high levels of precision of the tests. The results compare favourably with those from more established test procedures employing micro- and macroalgae. The advantages and potential limitations of the bioassay for the assessment of anthropogenic impacts on coastal ecosystems and commercial cultivation areas in near-shore environments are discussed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Oh J.-J.,Green Pioneer | Choi E.-M.,Incheon National University | Han Y.-S.,Green Pioneer | Yoon J.-H.,Incheon National University | And 8 more authors.
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences | Year: 2012

The present study was undertaken to establish the effect of salinity on the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) to Ulva pertusa, with inhibition of spore release used as the endpoint. The optimal salinity for maximal spore release for U. pertusa was found to be between 20 and 40 psu. Comparisons between toxicity of metals, as measured by EC50, was shown to be in the descending order of Cu>Cd>Pb=Zn, which is similar to the toxicity of metals to algae, in general. When salinity was decreased from 30 to 20 psu, the EC50 values for Cd toxicity to the inhibition of spore release in U. pertusa decreased from 261 to 103 g·L-1, whereas increased salinity from 30 to 40 psu increased the EC50 from 261 to 801 g·L-1. Similarly, EC50 values for Cu toxicity were 52 g·L-1 at 20 psu, 99 g·L-1 at 30 psu, and 225 g·L-1 at 40 psu, and for Zn toxicity were 720 g·L-1, 1,074 g·L-1 and 1,520 g·L-1, at 20, 30 and 40 psu, respectively. In contrast, no salinity dependent change in EC50 values was apparent for Pb, with no significant differences in EC50 values at under the three different salinity regimes. In general, lower salinity (20 psu) induced a significant decrease in percent spore release of U. pertusa as estimated by a decrease in EC50 values, while higher salinity (40 psu) reduced the toxicity of metals as shown by an increase EC50 values. These findings enable one to predict that any additional increase in pollution status would result in a pronounced reduction in the distribution of U. pertusa in brackish and estuarine waters. © 2012 Korean Society of Environmental Risk Assessment and Health Science and Springer.

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