Green Flask Co.

Meguro-ku, Japan

Green Flask Co.

Meguro-ku, Japan
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Kasuya H.,Toho University | Hata E.,Toho University | Satou T.,Toho University | Yoshikawa M.,Hinoki Seikou Co. | And 3 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2013

Various effects have been reported in the literature for the essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO), such as antibacterial and antifungal activity. In this study, we examined the effect of EOCO on emotional behavior and stress-induced biomarkers. Male ICR mice, aged 5 weeks at the start of each experiment, were individually housed in cages for 1 week. After placing each mouse in a glass container and exposing it to EOCO for 90 min, we then investigated the influence on emotional behavior using the elevated-plus maze (EPM) test, which is one of the evaluation methods for anxiolytic-like behavior. Significant anxiolytic-like effects were observed for the 7.0 mg/L air EOCO (P<0.05). After the EPM test, mice were dissected and changes in the stressinduced biomarkers within the brain were investigated by examining the amounts of fast nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) and activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) gene expression, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and galactokinase 1 (GLK1) protein expression. Significant increases were observed in the amount of NGFR after inhalation of 7.0 mg/L air EOCO (P<0.05). These results indicate that EOCO has both anxiolytic-like and stress mitigation effects.

Satou T.,Toho University | Chikama M.,Toho University | Chikama Y.,Chikama Hospital | Hachigo M.,Chikama Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine | Year: 2013

Objectives: To verify the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage on elderly patients under long-term hospitalization. Design: Aromatherapy massage was performed twice a week for a total of eight times. Setting: Nursing home. Subjects: Elderly women under long-term hospitalization. Interventions: Questionnaire and measurement of stress marker levels (salivary amylase activity) before and after the first, fifth, and eighth aromatherapy massages. Outcome measures: Questionnaire (Face scale, General Health Questionnaire-12 [GHQ-12]), measurement of salivary amylase activity. Results: A decrease in stress after aromatherapy massage compared to before each massage was confirmed at all measurement times and with the stress marker. No marked reduction was observed in Face scale or saliva amylase activity as a whole over the long term, although decreasing tendencies were seen. Marked reductions in GHQ-12 were observed over the long term. Conclusions: Aroma massage appears likely to prove effective in reducing psychological stress among elderly patients under long-term hospitalization. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.

Satou T.,Toho University | Matsuura M.,Toho University | Takahashi M.,Toho University | Murakami S.,Green Flask Co. | And 3 more authors.
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2011

The essential oils extracted from the leaves and the shoots of five Abies species (Pinaceae) growing in Japan, i.e., A. firma, A. homolepis, A. veitchii, A. mariesii, and A. sachalinensis, were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yields of the essential oils extracted from A. sachalinensis were the highest among them. A significant amount of α-pinene was contained in the essential oils of all the Abies species examined. In A. homolepis and A. veitchii, significant differences in the content of the essential oils were found depending on whether these were extracted from the leaves or from the shoots. Regarding the enantiomeric ratio of α-pinene, the (+)-enantiomer was predominant in the oil extracted from the leaves of A. firma, while (-)-α-pinene was present in higher amounts in the oils of A. veitchii (leaves and shoots), A. mariesii (leaves and shoots), and A. sachalinensis (shoots). The fact that there may be a quantitative and qualitative difference in the components of the essential oils extracted from the different parts of a plant was investigated by cluster analysis. © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

Satou T.,Toho University | Matsuura M.,Toho University | Takahashi M.,Toho University | Umezu T.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | And 3 more authors.
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2011

It has been proposed that essential oil extracted from Abies sachalinensis (EOAS) has a relaxation effect, among others, in humans; however, the scientific evidence is currently insufficient. To clarify the influence of EOAS on emotional behaviour, we examined its anxiolytic-like effect using a mouse model. The elevated plus maze task was used to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effect. The results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of EOAS at 0.6g/kg body weight did not produce an anxiolytic-like effect. However, a significant anxiolytic-like effect was observed after inhalation of EOAS at 3.6mg/l air (P<0.05). Next, the effect of the route of administration (i.p. vs. inhalation) on the distribution of the major components of EOAS was analysed. α-Pinene was observed in the brain at 5.7±2.0mg/kg (i.p.) and 19.7±0.9mg/kg (inhalation). The data showed that EOAS effectively produced an anxiolytic-like effect after administration by inhalation. Thus, the efficacy of EOAS in producing an anxiolytic-like effect is likely to be due to achieving adequate levels in the brain after EOAS had been inhaled. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Takahashi M.,Toho University | Satou T.,Toho University | Ohashi M.,Toho University | Hayashi S.,Green Flask Co. | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2011

Essential oils have traditionally been used for decades to alleviate the symptoms of various mental problems. In terms of anxiolytic-like properties, lavender oil is probably the most commonly used and best-studied essential oil. Although there is compositional variance among the oils extracted from different origins, there have been few studies performed to date to investigate how these differences affect the expression of anxiolytic-like activity. This paper discusses the interspecies differences and contributions of the main constituents in the expression of anxiolytic-like effects upon inhalation, as assessed in mice by the elevated-plus maze test, by comparing the essential oils from six different species of Lavandula. The results showed qualitative and quantitative variations in the tested oils, which results in significant differences in their anxiolytic-like activities. Our findings also suggest that linalyl acetate (LA) works synergistically with linalool (LO) and that the presence of both LA and LO is essential for the whole oil to work as an inhaled anti-anxiety agent.

Satou T.,Toho University | Kasuya H.,Toho University | Takahashi M.,Toho University | Murakami S.,Toho University | And 3 more authors.
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2011

Several reports have described the relationship between the quantity of an essential oil (EO), delivered by injection, and the effects on emotional behaviour. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the duration of EO inhalation and effects on emotional behaviour. It is necessary to clarify this relationship to accomplish effective utilization of an EO. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the relationship between EO inhalation time and anxiolytic-like effects. The anxiolytic-like effect of inhaled EO at various administration times was examined in normal healthy mice using the elevated-plus maze (EPM) test. The effect of a dose of 3.5mg/l air of Alpinia zerumbet EO was assessed using the EPM test. A time-dependent potentiation in the anxiolytic-like effect was observed when the inhalation time was altered from 0 to 120min. A significant (P<0.05 compared to time 0) anxiolytic-like effect was observed to peak at inhalation times of 90 and 120min. However, the anxiolytic-like effect returned to normal with a 150-min exposure. There was an optimal time of EO inhalation for expressing an anxiolytic-like effect. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Takahashi M.,Toho University | Yoshino A.,Toho University | Yamanaka A.,Toho University | Asanuma C.,Toho University | And 5 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2012

Inhalation of various essential oils elicits behavioral changes as a consequence of a complex centrally coordinated response. To understand the molecular mechanisms of action of aromatic compounds on emotional responses, we evaluated the stress-induced changes in mouse brain and the efficacy of inhaled essential oil from Lavandula officinalis (LvEO) using two approaches: a behavioral test, and examining the expression levels of selected genes {fast nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) mRNA, activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) mRNA} and proteins {galactokinase 1 (GLK1) and brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)}. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups depending on the treatment given: stress (-)/H2O, stress (-)/LvEO, stress (+)/H2O, and stress (+)/LvEO group. For behavioral testing, using an elevated plus-maze test, significant anxiolytic-like effects were seen in both the stress (-)/LvEO and stress (+)/LvEO groups, indicating that LvEO exerts anxiolytic-like effects regardless of the administration of water immersion stress. On expression analysis, the levels of NGFR and Arc mRNA were significantly lower in animals subjected to stress. Inhalation of LvEO, however, reversed this change, thus suggesting that LvEO negates the impact of stress on gene expression levels. Meanwhile, significant decreases in expression levels were also observed in the stress (-)/LvEO group, which implies that LvEO, when given in a stress-free situation, may act as a stress stimulus. Taken together, our data suggest that inhalation of LvEO exerts bidirectional influences in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, either attenuating the effects of stress or acting as a stressor, depending on the subject state.

Satou T.,Toho University | Miyahara N.,Toho University | Murakami S.,Green Flask Co. | Hayashi S.,Green Flask Co. | Koike K.,Toho University
Journal of Essential Oil Research | Year: 2012

Citrus junos (Yuzu, CJ) is a traditional fruit in Japan and its essential oil (EO) has been used in food, cosmetics, and traditional medicine. The present study examined the influence of essential oil from Citrus junos (EOCJ) on emotional behavior in mice, and how its action differed in comparison to (+)-limonene (LI), its major component. The influence of inhaled administration (i.h.) of EOCJ for 90 minutes on mouse emotional behavior was examined using the light/dark box (LDB) test, open field (OF) test, and elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. In addition, gas chromatography (GC) was used in clarifying the amount of LI absorbed in the internal organs. Inhalation of EOCJ at 3.4 and 6.7 mg/L air indicated the tendency for an anxiolytic-like effect in LDB and EPM tests. In addition, an increase in locomotor activity was observed at 6.7 mg/L air EOCJ (i.h.) in the OF test. Inhalation of (+)-LI at 3.4 and 6.7 mg/L air indicated the same anxiolytic-like effect in EPM test as with EOCJ. In contrast, the anxiolytic-like effect of (+)-LI was smaller than that of EOCJ in the LDB test. Furthermore, an increase in locomotor activity was not observed at 6.7 mg/L air (+)-LI (i.h.). © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Satou T.,Toho University | Murakami S.,Toho University | Murakami S.,Green Flask Co. | Matsuura M.,Toho University | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2010

The use of essential oils is common throughout the world, and clarification of their detailed effects and pharmaceutical potencies is necessary. Additionally, detailed information regarding the pharmacokinetics of essential oils is needed. In this report, GC-MS analysis was used to observe the tissue distribution of the multiple components of Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt. et Sm. Anxiety-related behavior was evaluated by the light and dark box test (LD), open field test (OF), and elevated plus maze test (EPM). GC-MS quantification of the major components of A. zerumbet essential oil (AZEO) (α-pinene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) was almost identical using either the injection or headspace injection method. All the behavioral assessments indicated that inhalation of AZEO had a positive anxiolytic effect. This was especially evident in the EPM (time spent in the open arms), where anxiolytic effects were clearly observed (P < 0.05). α-Pinene accumulated in the brain at almost the same rate as in the liver. However, the oil components chiefly accumulated in the kidney. Therefore, the essential oil component in the largest proportion will not necessarily be distributed to organs throughout the body in the same quantities and/or ratios. It is necessary to consider tissue distribution for investigating the effects of essential oil inhalation.

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