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Kathmandu, Nepal

Sung G.-H.,Mushroom | Shrestha B.,Green Energy Mission Nepal | Han S.-K.,Korea National Arboretum | Sung J.-M.,Cordyceps Institute of Mushtech
Mycobiology | Year: 2011

We investigated the effect of nutritional and environmental factors on Ophiocordyceps longissima mycelial growth. The longest colony diameter was observed on Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics complete medium plus yeast extract, Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics minimal medium, and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA); however, malt-extract yeast-extract agar, SDA plus yeast extract, yeast-extract malt-extract peptone dextrose agar, SDA, oatmeal agar, and potato dextrose agar showed higher mycelia density. A temperature of 25°C was optimum and 7.0 was the optimum pH for mycelial growth. Colony diameter was similar under light and dark conditions. Maltose and yeast extract showed the highest mycelial growth among carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. The effect of mineral salts was less obvious; however, K 3PO 4 showed slightly better growth than that of the other mineral salts tested. Among all nutrition sources tested, complex organic nitrogen sources such as yeast extract, peptone, and tryptone were best for mycelial growth of O. longissima. Ophiocordyceps longissima composite medium, formulated by adding maltose (2% w/v), yeast extract (1% w/v), and K3PO4 (0.05% w/v) resulted in slightly longer colony diameter. In vitro mycelial O. longissima growth was sustainable and the production of fruiting bodies could be used for commercial purposes in the future. © The Korean Society of Mycology.

Sung G.-H.,Mushroom | Shrestha B.,Green Energy Mission Nepal | Han S.-K.,Korea National Arboretum | Sung J.-M.,Cordyceps Institute of Mushtech
Mycobiology | Year: 2011

Isolates of Ophiocordyceps heteropoda (Kobayasi) collected from Mt. Halla on Jeju-do, Korea were tested for mycelial growth on different agar media and in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources. Similarly, isolates were also incubated at different temperatures as well as under continuous light and dark conditions. Growth was better on Hamada agar, basal medium, and malt-yeast agar, but poor on Czapek-Dox agar. Different carbon sources such as dextrin, saccharose, starch, lactose, maltose, fructose, and dextrose resulted in better growth. Complex organic nitrogen sources such as yeast extract and peptone revealed the most effective growth. Mycelial growth was best at 25°C. The growth rate was faster in the dark than the light, but mycelial density was less compact in the dark. © The Korean Society of Mycology.

Shrestha B.,Green Energy Mission Nepal | Zhang W.,Guangdong Institute of Microbiology | Zhang Y.,Shanxi University | Liu X.,CAS Institute of Microbiology
Mycology | Year: 2010

Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a well-known insect fungus, naturally distributed in the Tibetan Plateau of Asia. It has been long known by its synonym Cordyceps sinensis both in scientific and non-scientific communities but was recently transferred to Ophiocordyceps. Over the last 300 years, the morphological characters of this taxon have been studied by different professionals and experts, such as religious persons, travelers, entomologists, pharmacologists and mycologists. Morphological descriptions of mature O. sinensis stroma based on recent studies are compared in this study with those of the type specimens of Berkeley (Lond J Bot. 2:205-211;1843). A literature review indicates that the specimens of Berkeley (1843) are immature. New names have been proposed for O. sinensis-like species from alpine regions, such as O. gansuënsis, O. crassispora, O. kangdingensis, O. multiaxialis and O. nepalensis, and it is not obvious how these differ from O. sinensis. Epitypification and revision of O. sinensis is, therefore, essential to resolve the taxonomic ambiguity of O. sinensis and related species. © 2010 Mycological Society of China.

Sung G.-H.,Mushroom | Shrestha B.,Green Energy Mission Nepal | Park K.-B.,NGEO Environmental Seongnam | Han S.-K.,Korea National Arboretum | Sung J.-M.,Cordyceps Institute of Mushtech
Mycobiology | Year: 2011

Shimizuomyces paradoxus showed no inhibitory effect against plant pathogen fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani. The S. paradoxus culture filtrate showed higher seed germination and seedling growth rates in canola than distilled water and potato-dextrose broth. A conidial suspension of 1.0 × 10 4/mL resulted in the highest growth stimulating effects on total plant length, and fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots in cucumber, when compared to the highest suspension concentration. Total plant length and shoot weight increased with the foliar spray treatment, and root length and root weight increased by simultaneous treatments of soil drenching and foliar spray in cucumber. Lower concentrations of the S. paradoxus conidial suspension increased the harvest of tomato fruit. © The Korean Society of Mycology.

Thapa B.B.,Babar Mahal | Panthi S.,Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve | Rai R.K.,Green Governance Nepal | Shrestha U.B.,University of Massachusetts Boston | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Mountain Science | Year: 2014

Yarsagumba (Ophiocordyceps sinensis), an endemic species to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal mushrooms in the world. In Nepal, it is distributed largely in isolated patches of alpine grasslands of 3,000-5,000 m elevation. Although it is reported from 27 northernmost districts of Nepal, the local distribution pattern of this species is largely unknown. Furthermore, the collection system and local management regime of this species are not well documented. We conducted a field survey at Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) among the different stakeholders in January-June 2012 to assess collection sites, patterns and trends and to understand the management regime. We estimated that about 75 kg of Yarsagumba is collected every year from DHR and the amount has been declining since 2008. To manage the resource, locals have initiated regulating the collection by issuing permits, taxing to the collectors, and monitoring the activities of harvesters with the help of park authorities. The revenue generated at local level from the permits has been used for community developmental activities. © Science Press and Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

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