Green Belt Project

Rāwalpindi, Pakistan

Green Belt Project

Rāwalpindi, Pakistan

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Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Aslam M.N.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Crop Protection | Year: 2014

The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is one of the major limiting factors affecting plant growth and yield causing an estimated $100 billion loss per year worldwide. Synthetic pesticides, though instantaneously effective, are usually prohibitively expensive, not readily available, may cause hazards to both man and livestock, and inflict injury to the environment. Notable among the alternatives to nematicides is the use of resistant cultivars which are inexpensive and eco-friendly. In the present studies, twelve okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L) cultivars were evaluated for their resistance against M.incognita under field conditions. Ten-day old okra plants of test cultivars were inoculated with 3000 freshly hatched second stage juveniles of M.incognita. The nematode caused reductions in various growth parameters of all the cultivars to varying levels over their respective controls. None of the cultivars was found completely resistant. The cultivar 'Sharmeeli' was highly susceptible as >100 galls were recorded on the roots. Sharmeeli also showed maximum reductions in growth among the cultivars evaluated. The cultivars Anmol and Sindha were susceptible with 71-100 galls. The cultivars Sabz Pari, Super Star, PMS-55 and PMS Beauty were moderately susceptible with 31-70 galls and comparatively less reductions in growth. Cultivars Sanam, Dikshah, Arka Anamika, Ikra-1 and Ikra-2 with 11-30 galls were rated as moderately resistant and showed less damage by the nematode as compared to susceptible cultivars and their planting could provide a useful tool to control root-knot nematodes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute | Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Aslam M.N.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Ul-Haque M.I.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) is one of the important vegetables of the tropical and subtropical areas. In Pakistan okra is cultivated on thousands of hectares but the yield obtained is relatively lower, for which there are many constraints including prevalence of diseases caused by different pathogens. Among various pathogens responsible for the low yield, the root-knot disease incited by Meloidogyne spp., is of considerable economic importance and cause annual losses in tropics to an extent of 22 per cent. As there is meager information regarding the association of root-knot nematodes with okra in the country, the present studies were conducted in 17 districts of the Punjab province of the country to determine the occurrence, prevalence and intensity of root-knot nematodes in okra cultivations in the vegetable growing areas of Punjab. The survey revealed that root-knot nematodes prevailed in 85.28% of okra fields with an average incidence of 38.89%. Hundred per cent prevalence was recorded in Multan, Okara, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalnagar, Vehari, Rahim Yar Khan and Rawalpindi districts and a minimum prevalence of 22.4% was found in Lodhran district. The incidence was above 60% in Bahawalnagar, Rahim Yar Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan and Vehari and was only 4.44% in Lodhran. The severity of infection of the nematodes was highest in Bahawalnagar and Vehari, while it was the lowest in Lodhran. Of the four most common root-knot species, M. incognita constituted 74.74%, M. javanica 24.02%, M. arenaria 1.57% and M. hapla 0.78%.


Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute | Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most widespread and damaging plant-parasitic nematodes in Pakistan and substantially affects growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L). In the present study, reproduction of M. incognita was assessed on twelve okra cultivars with varying levels of resistance or susceptibility. Maximum average egg masses (177.8), eggs per egg mass (298.4) and reproductive factor of 17.1 fold were observed on highly susceptible cultivar Sharmeeli. The nematode produced 83.4 and 88.6 egg masses per root system, 280 and 265.4 eggs per egg mass, reproduced 8 and 9 folds on susceptible cultivars Okra Sindha and Anmol, respectively. Egg masses, eggs per egg mass and reproductive factors ranged from 47.2 to 53, 202.6 to 238 and 3.5 to 5.2 on moderately susceptible cultivars. In case of moderately resistant cultivars (Sanam, Dikshah, Arka Anamika, Ikra-1 and Ikra-2) the average egg masses ranged from 20.2 to 27.4, eggs per egg mass from 178 to 193.2 and reproductive factors were less than 2. These cultivars showed some tolerance to infection by the nematode. The cultivation of moderately resistant and tolerant cultivars would help reduce nematode reproduction enough to affect the residual nematode population density as uninterrupted cultivation of susceptible cultivars is exacerbating the root-knot problem in the country. © 2016, University of Agriculture. All rights reserved.


Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute | Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Twelve okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars were evaluated for their characterization of susceptibility and resistance responses to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Plants of test okra cultivars were inoculated with 3000 freshly hatched second stage juveniles of M. incognita. The nematode caused reductions in various growth parameters of all the cultivars to varying levels over their respective controls. None of the cultivars was found immune, highly resistant or resistant. The cultivar 'Sharmeeli' was found to be highly susceptible as maximum galls (>100) were recorded on the roots of this cultivar. The cultivar also showed maximum reductions in growth parameters. The cultivars Anmol and Okra Sindha were found to be susceptible (71-100 galls). In the same way, the cultivars Sabz Pari, Super Star, PMS-55 and PMS Beauty appeared as moderately susceptible (31-70 galls) and reductions in growth parameters of these cultivars were comparatively less severe as compared to those observed in the case of susceptible and highly susceptible cultivars. Five cultivars viz. Sanam, Dikshah, Arka Anamika, Ikra-1 and Ikra-2 (11-30 galls) were rated as moderately resistant as these cultivars showed less damage by the nematode as compared to susceptible and moderately and highly susceptible cultivars and their use could provide a useful tool to control root-knot nematodes.


Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin nematicides as a surrogate to chemical nematicides, the present study was carried out to assess the nematicidal potential of two antagonistic plants Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) and Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. (Rutaceae) against the most devastating root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita responsible for colossal yield losses in cucumber. The leaves of C. sativa and Z. alatum were incorporated in the soil at the rate of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 20 g per kg of soil. After decomposition, cucumber (cv. Royal Sluis) seeds were sown and inoculated with 2000 s stage juveniles of M. incognita ten days after emergence. Data on growth variables and nematode infestations were recorded after six weeks of inoculation. Both the plants significantly reduced nematode infestations and enhanced plant growth criteria compared to the untreated check. The reductions in number of galls, egg masses, nematode fecundity and build up caused by C. sativa were significantly higher as compared to Z. alatum. Maximum reductions in these variables were recorded with 20 g dosage. The addition of C. sativa and Z. alatum to the soil as organic amendment can work very well as nematicides and can be successfully used for controlling root-knot nematodes replacing traditional chemical treatments and avoiding environmental pollution. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Irshad U.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ashfaq M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) causes severe damage to citrus. In the present study the relationship between different initial densities of T. semipenetrans and reduction in growth parameters of Citrus jambhiri and nematode infestations was examined in pot experiment under greenhouse conditions using completely randomized design. Seedlings of C. jambhiri were inoculated with T. semipenetrans at the rate of 0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000 and 8,000 second stage juveniles/pot in the greenhouse. Data were collected on fresh and dry weights of the shoot and root, shoot length, nematode populations in the roots and soil and reproduction factor. All the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range Test at 5%. The relationships between number of galls and growth variables and nematode infestations were determined using regression analysis. It was observed that all the inoculum densities caused reductions in growth parameters and were found directly proportional to the inoculum density. Similarly, a direct relationship was observed between root and soil populations of the nematode and inoculum levels. On the other hand, the nematode build up was the maximum at lower inoculum level and an inverse relationship was observed between reproduction factor and inoculum densities of the nematode.


Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute | Ul-Haque M.I.,Green Belt Project
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

Studies to estimate root-knot nematode infestations on cucumber were conducted during mid- to late-season at 378 randomly selected sites in 126 villages of the four districts across the Pothowar zone of the country. The overall mean infestation of root-knot nematodes in the region was found to be 15.66%. The studies revealed variations in the incidence and severity of root-knot nematodes in the four districts. The incidence of root-knot nematodes was the highest in Rawalpindi district (21.86%), followed by 13.89% in Attock. Of the four districts, the minimum incidence of 10.97% was recorded in Jhelum district. The maximum mean severity (3.79), measured in terms of the galling index, was found in Rawalpindi district, while the minimum (1.86) was observed in Jhelum district. The mean severities of root-knot nematodes in the districts of Attock and Chakwal were 2.66 and 2.19 respectively. Variations in incidence and severity were also observed among subdivisions of the districts. Of all the associated species of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita constituted 78.53%, Meloidogyne javanica 19.03%, Meloidogyne arenaria 1.82% and Meloidogyne hapla 0.62%. M. incognita and M. javanica were recorded in all of the districts, with M. incognita predominating. M. incognita as a pure population was recorded in 29.63% of the villages, while the other three species were found as mixtures. The most common mixed population was M. incognita and M. javanica, observed in 70.37% of villages in the region. M. arenaria and M. hapla were not found together in any of the population mixtures. The results indicate that cucumber is severely attacked by root-knot nematodes, warranting adoption of strict control measures for its management. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Arshad I.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The pathogenic potential of Meloidogyne incognita on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was determined at initial population densities of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 second stage juveniles per kg of soil in pots in the glasshouse inoculated after 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th week of emergence. Significant reductions in plant height and fresh shoot weight and increases in root weight, number of galls and egg masses were observed at all inoculum densities. With an increase in inoculum level, there was a progressive increase in height and shoot weight reductions, root weight, number of galls and egg masses. Plants inoculated after 2nd week of emergence were heavily damaged. However, with the increase in plant age at the time of inoculation, the damaging effects lowered significantly. Reductions in height and shoot weight and increase in root weight, number of galls and egg masses were found to be directly proportional to inoculum densities. On the other hand, with an increase in the initial inoculum density and plant age there was a corresponding decrease in the reproduction factor being inversely proportional to inoculum densities and plant ages.


Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are one of the most destructive pathogens of vegetables. The cultivars resistant to root-knot nematodes have comparatively better crop yield than susceptible varieties and can be employed as a component of integrated nematode management. In the present study, 15 cultivars of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were tested for their response to Meloidogyne incognita by inoculating with 3000 2nd stage juveniles of the nematode. All cultivars varied significantly in causing reductions in growth parameters over their controls. Likewise, all cultivars behaved differently regarding formation of galls and egg masses and reproductive factor. It was found that none of the tested cultivars was found immune or highly resistant. Long Green was the only cultivar which was found resistant against M. incognita as it showed minimum galls (8.2) and reductions in growth parameters. On the other hand, cultivars Mehran, Mirage, Thamin-II, and Royal Sluis were highly susceptible as evident by maximum galls (>100) on their roots and reductions in growth parameters. Similarly, the cultivars Green Wonder, Cucumber Citriolo and Poinsett were moderately susceptible (31-70 galls) while Babylon, Cobra and Falcon-560 (71-100 galls) were susceptible and reductions in growth parameters of these cultivars were less than those in highly susceptible cultivars. Four cultivars, Marketmore, Dynasty, Pioneer-II, and Summer Green, were rated as moderately resistant (11-30 galls) as these cultivars showed less damage by the nematode than moderately susceptible, susceptible and highly susceptible cultivars. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Because of being costly and pernicious to the environment and human health, the use of nematicides has become prohibitive in many countries and the management of plant parasitic nematodes using antagonistic plants can be a very attractive alternative. In the present studies the effectiveness of aqueous extracts of Cannabis sativa and Zanthoxylum alatum was assessed on hatching, mortality and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita at different concentrations viz. S, S:1, S:5, S:10, S:25, S:50 and S:100. Both the plants had significant effects on juvenile mortality and hatching inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Mortality and hatching inhibition caused by C. sativa were significantly higher than that of Z. alatum. Time duration also affected mortality and hatching inhibition significantly. Significant inhibition in invasion of M. incognita juveniles on cucumber cv. Royal Sluis was observed by different treatments with extracts. M. incognita juveniles exposed to 'S' extracts of C. sativa and Z. alatum for 24 and 48. h caused no infection. Exposure for 12 and 6. h caused more than 95 and 90% reductions in infectivity of M. incognita juveniles respectively. Similarly, soil drench and root dip treatments also caused significant reductions in infection. Reduction in infectivity was found to be significantly higher with extracts of C. sativa as compared to Z. alatum and decreased in a dose-responsive manner. The results of the studies showed that the extracts of test plants, commonly found locally, possess high potentials for the control of root-knot nematodes and could be the possible replacement for synthetic nematicides. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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