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Manola K.N.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2013

Acute leukaemia of ambiguous lineage (ALAL) is a rare complex entity with heterogeneous clinical, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic features and adverse outcome. According to World Health Organization 2008 classification, ALAL encompasses those leukaemias that show no clear evidence of differentiation along a single lineage. The rarity of ALAL and the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria have made it difficult to establish its cytogenetic features, although cytogenetic analysis reveals clonal chromosomal abnormalities in 59-91% of patients. This article focuses on the significance of cytogenetic analysis in ALAL supporting the importance of cytogenetic analysis in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, follow up and treatment selection of ALAL. It reviews in detail the types of chromosomal aberrations, their molecular background, their correlation with immunophenotype and age distribution and their prognostic relevance. It also summarizes some novel chromosome aberrations that have been observed only once. Furthermore, it highlights the ongoing and future research on ALAL in the field of cytogenetics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Stratikos E.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research
Current opinion in chemical biology | Year: 2014

Antigenic peptide processing by intracellular aminopeptidases has emerged recently as an important pathway that regulates adaptive immune responses. Pathogens and cancer can manipulate the activity of key enzymes of this pathway to promote immune evasion. Furthermore, the activity of these enzymes is naturally variable due to polymorphic variation, contributing to predisposition to disease, most notably autoimmunity. Here, we review recent findings that suggest that the pharmacological regulation of the activity of these aminopeptidases constitutes a valid approach for regulating human immune responses. We furthermore review the state of the art in chemical tools for inhibiting these enzymes and how these tools can be useful for the development of innovative therapeutic approaches for a variety of diseases including cancer, viral infections and autoimmunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Georgiou G.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: In this work we employ the MHV technique to show that scattering amplitudes with any number of consecutive soft particles behave universally in the multi-soft limit in which all particles go soft simultaneously. After identifying the diagrams which give the leading contribution we give the general rules for writing down compact expressions for the multi-soft factor of m gluons, k of which have negative helicity. We explicitly consider the cases where k = 1 and 2. In N=4$$ \mathcal{N}=4 $$ SYM, the multi-soft factors of 2 scalars or 2 fermions forming a singlet of SU(4) R-symmetry, and m − 2 positive helicity gluons are derived. The special case of the double-soft limit gives an amplitude whose leading divergence is 1/δ2 and not 1/δ as in the case of 2 scalars or 2 fermions that do not form a singlet under SU(4). The construction based on the analytic supervertices allows us to obtain simple expressions for the triple-soft limit of 1 scalar and 2 positive helicity fermions, as well as for the quadrapole-soft limit of 4 positive helicity fermions, in a singlet configuration. © 2015, The Author(s). Source


Artikis A.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research
Journal of Logic and Computation | Year: 2012

Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) where the agents are developed by different parties and serve different interests, are often classified as 'open'. The specification of open MAS is largely seen as a design-time activity. Moreover, there is no support for run-time specification modification. Due to environmental, social or other conditions, however, it is often required to revise the MAS specification during its execution. To address this requirement, we present an infrastructure for 'dynamic' open MAS specifications, that is, specifications that may be modified at run-time by the agents. We adopt a bird's eye view of an open MAS, as opposed to an agent's own perspective whereby it reasons about how it should act. The infrastructure consists of well-defined procedures for proposing a modification of the 'rules of the game', as well as decision-making over and enactment of proposed modifications. We evaluate proposals for rule modification by modelling a dynamic specification as a metric space, and by considering the effects of accepting a proposal on system utility. Furthermore, we constrain the enactment of proposals that do not meet the evaluation criteria. We employ the action language C+ to formalize dynamic specifications, and the 'Causal Calculator' implementation of C+ to execute the specifications. We illustrate our infrastructure by presenting a dynamic specification of a resource-sharing protocol. © 2011 The Author. Source


Papadopoulos C.G.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

A simplified differential equations approach for Master Integrals is presented. It allows to express them, straightforwardly, in terms of Goncharov Polylogarithms. As a proof-of-concept of the proposed method, results at one and two loops are presented, including the massless one-loop pentagon with up to one off-shell leg at order epsilon. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

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