Aurangābād, India
Aurangābād, India

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Khalane H.,Greaves Cotton Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Due to reciprocating nature of IC engine, flow physics in intake manifold is complex and has significant effect on volumetric efficiency. Variable length intake manifold technology offers potential for improving engine performance. This paper therefore investigated effect of intake length on volumetric efficiency for wider range of engine speeds. For this purpose 1-D thermodynamic engine model of a single cylinder 611cc standard CFR engine capable of predicting pressure waves in the intake was developed. For validation, pressure waves were predicted at two different locations on intake manifold and compared against test data. This model was used to predict volumetric efficiency for different intake lengths and engine speeds. Volumetric efficiency was found to be a function of both engine speed and intake length, more so at higher engine speeds. Frequency analysis of intake pressure waves during suction stroke and intake valve closed phase was carried out separately. Best volumetric efficiency was observed for intake runner length exhibiting pressure waves with 4th order fundamental frequency during intake valve closed phase and 1st order fundamental frequency during suction stroke. Based on Helmholtz resonator theory and acoustic theory (Kinsler equation) optimum intake length was calculated. Simulation predicted optimum intake length was in agreement with theoretically calculated optimum intake length. © 2015 SAE International.

Kaleemuddin S.,Greaves Cotton Ltd | Rao G.A.P.,National Institute of Technology Warangal
International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion | Year: 2012

Relatively lower fuel energy cost, higher fuel conversion efficiency and ability to take higher loads are the attracting features of direct injection diesel engines. However, diesel engines are still posing the challenges to both researchers and manufacturers in terms of high soot and NOx emissions. To overcome these difficulties, small diesel engine manufacturers are resorting to either upgrade their existing diesel engines to comply with the periodic revision in emission norms. A research work is taken-up to develop engines for complying with the stringent emission norms. To achieve the objective, an existing diesel engine is suitably modified in combustion chamber, fuel cam, fuel injection system and employed EGR technique. Performance optimisation tests are conducted on both engine and chassis dynamometers following the standard procedures of loading and vehicle driving cycles. 10% EGR is found to be optimum for engine performance and NOx emission reduction to achieve BS-III emission norms. With the design modifications incorporated added with 10%EGR about 85%, 32% and 75% reduction in CO, HC + NOx and PM emission respectively are obtained. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Amba Prasad Rao G.,National Institute of Technology Warangal | Kaleemuddin S.,Greaves Cotton Ltd
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

Fossil fuel run diesel engines are being favored in light, medium and heavy duty applications as they exhibit higher fuel conversion efficiencies. Direct injection diesels are still facing challenges to obtain trade-off between oxides of nitrogen and particulate emissions. There are sophisticated strategies such as common rail direct injection, particulate filters with associated sensors and actuators but limited to expensive comfort vehicles. In the present experimental study, a mechanically operated simple component, variable timing fuel injection cam, is designed for a 510. cc automotive type naturally aspirated, water-cooled, direct injection diesel engine. Modifications in the fuel injection cam and gear train are carried out to suit the existing engine configuration. Variable speed tests are carried out for testing the efficacy of component on both engine and chassis dynamometers for performance and emissions. It is observed that the engine which is already retarded could further be retarded with variable timing fuel injection cam. Significant reductions in NO. x and smoke emission levels are achieved. Combined effect of VIC with 7% EGR could reduce CO by about 88%, HC. +. NO. x by 37% and PM emissions by 90%. The Engine incorporated with the designed component and EGR, successfully satisfied the existing emission norms with improved power and specific fuel consumption. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Gawande S.H.,College of Engineering, Pune | Navale L.G.,College of Engineering, Pune | Nandgaonkar M.R.,College of Engineering, Pune | Butala D.,Greaves Cotton Ltd
Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Technologies, MIMT 2010 | Year: 2010

The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the four stroke multi-cylinder diesel engine coupling generator system for torsional vibration. In this work the modified Holzer method is used for free and forced vibration analysis of mass-elastic system and to determine the natural frequencies of torsional vibration of a multi-cylinder inline diesel engine generator set. The natural frequency of a system is important as it is the main cause of various types of failures. The high level harmonic forcing torque developed in engine can produce large torsional stress levels resulting in early fatigue failure in crankshaft. Therefore by knowing the natural frequencies and frequency modes of the engine the limitations in use of the engine working speeds can be fixed (i.e. for present case 1317.00rpm). From further torsional vibration analysis it is found that the calculated vibratory stresses are well within the allowable stress limit.

Kaleemuddin S.,Greaves Cotton Ltd | Shaikh S.,Greaves Cotton Ltd | Bhattacharya S.,Greaves Cotton Ltd
Institution of Mechanical Engineers - Innovations in Fuel Economy and Sustainable Road Transport | Year: 2011

Increase in automotive exhaust pollution and fuel prices have driven the nations to impose stringent emission norms for automotive engines. This has put enormous pressure on automotive industry to develop efficient and economical engine designs to compete with global market. For small diesel engine it is major task to improve power output and to have performance to comply with stringent exhaust emissions standard as well, especially for NOx and Particulate (PM) emissions. The present work deals with the development and optimization of two-cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection 870cc diesel engine incorporated with low cost simple plunger type fuel injection pump. Combustion optimization was done by increasing cam velocity of fuel injection cam, subsequently increasing the line pressure. Smaller hole size with reduced through flow (HTF) VCO nozzle was used for better spray impingement and atomization. Compression ratio was increased by changing re-entrant combustion bowl volume to improve cold startability and reduce HC and PM emission. Intake manifold design was reviewed to improve intake air flow velocity, subsequently improving engine volumetric efficiency. Optimized engine performance has improved in terms of bsfc, smoke, lower end torque and fueling. ECU based mapped proportional EGR system was intelligently adopted from single cylinder exhaust port to reduce NOx emission. Finally engine was tested for mass emission on four wheeler vehicle in ECE-EUDC driving cycle. It is observed that combined effect of improved combustion with overall 25% EGR has reduced CO by about 79%, HC by 93%, NOx by 48% and PM by 62% when compared with its base engine emission. Combustion optimization on upgraded engine has shown 10% reducing in CO 2 emission. The Engine was successfully upgraded to meet Bharat Stage - III emission norms with low cost solution and improved fuel economy. © The author(s) and/or their employer(s), 2011.

Gawande S.H.,College of Engineering, Pune | Navale L.G.,College of Engineering, Pune | Nandgaonkar M.R.,College of Engineering, Pune | Butala D.,Greaves Cotton Ltd
2010 The 2nd International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering, ICCAE 2010 | Year: 2010

The main purpose of this paper is to develop the model of fuel injection adjustment for balancing the four stroke six cylinder inline diesel engine coupling generator set by detecting unbalance in operating engine by the frequency analysis of the crankshaft's speed variation. In this work the crankshaft considered to be a rigid body, so that the variation of its angular speed could be directly correlated to the total gas-pressure torque. Actually, the variation of the crankshaft's speed has a complex nature being influenced by the torsional stiffness of the cranks, the mass moments of inertia of the reciprocating and rotating masses and the average speed and load on the engine. Analyzing only the lower harmonic orders (1/2, 1, and 1 1/2) of the speed variation spectrum can filter out the distortions produced by the dynamic response of the crankshaft. The information carried by these harmonic orders permits to establish correlations between measurements and the average gas pressure torque of the engine, and to detect unbalance and identify faulty cylinders. Detail experimental reading were taken on diesel engine coupling genset on the test bed of Greaves Cotton Ltd Pune, India. ©2010 IEEE.

Ghare P.P.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Khalane H.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Wakhure U.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Khobragade T.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

As one of the most complicated parts of an internal combustion Engine, cylinder head is directly exposed to high combustion pressures and temperatures. Cooling must be provided for the heated surfaces to avoid overheating. However over-cooling will cause lower overall efficiency and high emission. Therefore, an optimal design of the cooling system is required to maintain trouble-free operation of engine. For single cylinder naturally aspirated Compression Ignition (CI) engines, on account of space restrictions, designing of cooling jacket is very critical. Engineers invest a large amount of time and serious effort to optimize the flow through engine cooling jacket with limited detailed information of conducting flow and heat transfer. This paper therefore, investigates cooling performance of a single cylinder 510cc production diesel engine. Commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is used along with the domain knowledge of in-house experts to improve the cooling performance by virtue of better coolant flow distribution in head and cylinder barrel. Due to vehicle packaging requirements, coolant inlet and outlet are on same side of engine. This coupled with positions of flow connections between cylinder barrel and head resulted in coolant flow distribution such that 26% of total coolant flow was exiting from outlet without contributing to cylinder head cooling. This has lowered valve bridge maximum velocity to 0.8 m/s and restricted coolant flow rate in cavity below exhaust port to approximately 10% of total coolant flow. Coolant flow distribution was modified by changing diameter and position of coolant jacket connections between cylinder block and head to meet engine cooling as well as manufacturing requirements. Optimized coolant jacket reduced non-utilized coolant flow by 75% from baseline design leading to 35% improvement in valve bridge velocity. Coolant flow below exhaust port was improved by approximately 50%. Validation of CFD optimized cooling jacket was carried out by comparing coolant temperature in cavity below exhaust port. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.

Shrivas J.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Khairnar G.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Pande S.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Hussaini Y.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Chaudhari A.,Greaves Cotton Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

In Internal Combustion (I.C.) engines, seat inserts and valves are the major components responsible for performance, emissions and reliability. Failure of these components can cause performance deterioration. In case of compressed natural gas (CNG) engines, impact on life of seat inserts and valves are adversely affected due to its dry combustion environment and high operating temperatures. Greaves cotton has developed a single cylinder, water cooled, dedicated CNG engine with port injection from the base diesel engine. Major challenges were encountered during the CNG engine development with respect to seat inserts and valves wear. The design was modified considering the different design parameters to arrest failure modes as given below: 1Seat insert material compatibility2Seat angle3Seat width4Valve head stiffness5Alignment of seat inserts and valves6Valves closing velocities. Valves & seat inserts wear could be successfully resolved by design modifications and the same was validated through engine bed & vehicle level testing. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.

Chaudhari A.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Ghare P.P.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Mangal S.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Lokare P.,Greaves Cotton Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

High vibration stimulus is a characteristic of single cylinder diesel engines. The load carrier segment driven by single cylinder diesel engine operates on low running speeds and heavy load. This operating condition pushes the vibrations generated in the engine to extreme level making it challenging to design peripheral components. More-over, simulation of components involving welded joints becomes further more challenging as virtual representation of welded joint and prediction of its behaviour under high vibrations is difficult to model. Also, the behaviour of over-all design changes drastically when the position and orientation of welding seam is altered. Different weld seam positions under high vibration input may lead to varied mechanisms of weld seam opening and it changes the stress distribution on the mating component leading to different mechanics of failure. This paper exhibits an approach used to optimize the design of EGR cooler bracket through a combined approach of measurements & virtual validation. The main challenging part covered in the paper is related to simulation of welded joint behaviour with various iterations of weld seam. Vibration measurement is performed on a prototype engine at very early stage of project and the results of measurement are applied in virtual simulations to optimize the design. Iterations are performed to exactly simulate the behaviour of welded joint present in the bracket design. Similar approach can be useful for other peripheral components design and optimization which may or may not involve welded joints. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.

Kaleemuddin S.,Greaves Cotton Ltd. | Rao G.A.P.,National Institute of Technology Warangal
Thermal Science | Year: 2010

Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

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