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Skowronek J.,Greater Poland Cancer Center | Skowronek J.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences
Wspolczesna Onkologia | Year: 2013

Brachytherapy is a curative alternative to radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation [i.e. 3D conformal external beam radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)] with comparable long-term survival and biochemical control and the most favorable toxicity. HDR brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in treatment of prostate cancer is most frequently used together with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a boost (increasing the treatment dose precisely to the tumor). In the early stages of the disease (low, sometimes intermediate risk group), HDR-BT is more often used as monotherapy. There are no significant differences in treatment results (overall survival rate - OS, local recurrence rate - LC) between radical prostatectomy, EBRT and HDR-BT. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) is a radiation method that has been known for several years in treatment of localized prostate cancer. The LDR-BT is applied as a monotherapy and also used along with EBRT as a boost. It is used as a sole radical treatment modality, but not as a palliative treatment. The use of brachytherapy as monotherapy in treatment of prostate cancer enables many patients to keep their sexual functions in order and causes a lower rate of urinary incontinence. Due to progress in medical and technical knowledge in brachytherapy ("real-time" computer planning systems, new radioisotopes and remote afterloading systems), it has been possible to make treatment time significantly shorter in comparison with other methods. This also enables better protection of healthy organs in the pelvis. The aim of this publication is to describe both brachytherapy methods.

Skowronek J.,Greater Poland Cancer Center | Skowronek J.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy | Year: 2013

Purpose: Permanent low-dose-rate (LDR-BT) and temporary high-dose-rate (HDR-BT) brachytherapy are competitive techniques for clinically localized prostate radiotherapy. Although a randomized trial will likely never to be conducted comparing these two forms of brachytherapy, a comparative analysis proves useful in understanding some of their intrinsic differences, several of which could be exploited to improve outcomes. The aim of this paper is to look for possible similarities and differences between both brachytherapy modalities. Indications and contraindications for monotherapy and for brachytherapy as a boost to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) are presented. It is suggested that each of these techniques has attributes that advocates for one or the other. First, they represent the extreme ends of the spectrum with respect to dose rate and fractionation, and therefore have inherently different radiobiological properties. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy has the great advantage of being practically a one-time procedure, and enjoys a long-term follow-up database supporting its excellent outcomes and low morbidity. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy has been a gold standard for prostate brachytherapy in low risk patients since many years. On the other hand, HDR is a fairly invasive procedure requiring several sessions associated with a brief hospital stay. Although lacking in significant long-term data, it possesses the technical advantage of control over its postimplant dosimetry (by modulating the source dwell time and position), which is absent in LDR brachytherapy. This important difference in dosimetric control allows HDR doses to be escalated safely, a flexibility that does not exist for LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: Radiobiological models support the current clinical evidence for equivalent outcomes in localized prostate cancer with either LDR or HDR brachytherapy, using current dose regimens. At present, all available clinical data regarding these two techniques suggests that they are equally effective, stage for stage, in providing high tumor control rates.

Cieslak K.,Greater Poland Cancer Center
Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy | Year: 2013

Background: The essence of psychological support provided to oncology patients is to adjust its methods to the needs and expectations arising from the distressful experience of cancer and its treatment. Aim: The aim of this study is to present methods of professional psychological support to be used in work with oncology patients during the treatment and follow-up stages. Materials and methods: The article is a review of psychological and psychotherapy methods most often applied to oncology patients. Conclusion: Methods of psychological support depend on the current condition of a patient. The support will be effective if provided in adequate time and place with the patient's express consent and in line with their individual needs and expectations. © 2012 Greater Poland Cancer Centre.

Dams-Kozlowska H.,Greater Poland Cancer Center
International journal of medical sciences | Year: 2013

Interleukin-11 (IL-11) displays megakaryopoietic activity. We constructed super-cytokine Hyper- IL11 (H11) by linking soluble IL-11 receptor α (sIL-11Rα) with IL-11, which directly targets β-receptor (gp130) signal transducing subunit. The effects of H11 on hematopoiesis with a focus on megakaryopoiesis were studied. The expansion, differentiation and type of colony formation of cord blood progenitor Lin-CD34+ cells were analyzed. H11 was more effective than recombinant human IL-11 (rhIL-11) in enhancement of the Lin-CD34+ cells expansion and differentiation into megakaryocytes (Mk). It induced higher expression of CD41a and CD61 antigens, resulting in a substantially larger population of CD34-CD41a(high)CD61(high) cells. H11 treatment led to increased number of small and mainly medium megakaryocyte colony formation (Mk-CFU). Moreover, it induced the formation of a small number of large colonies, which were not observed following rhIL-11 treatment. Significantly higher number of H11 derived Mk colonies released platelets-like particles (PLP). Furthermore, H11 was considerably more potent than rhIL-11 in promoting differentiation of Lin-CD43+ cells toward erythrocytes. Our results indicate that H11 is more effective than rhIL-11 in enhancing expansion of early progenitors and directing them to megakaryocyte and erythroid cells and in inducing maturation of Mk. Thus, H11 may prove beneficial for thrombocytopenia treatment and/or an ex vivo expansion of megakaryocytes.

Skorska M.,Greater Poland Cancer Center
Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy | Year: 2014

Aim: A literature review was undertaken to identify current TSEB therapy in pediatric patients. Background: Total skin electron beam (TSEB) therapy is a method of irradiation with low energy electron beam dedicated to patients who have superficial skin lesions all over their body. Such skin malignancies are sparse among adults and even more uncommon with pediatric population. Materials and methods: In this study, all reported case reports were summed up with a special emphasis on techniques used, doses prescribed and special shielding of critical organs. Moreover, potential problems that were encountered during TSEB irradiation of very young patients were depicted. Results: The literature has described only seven case reports of children undergoing TSEB therapy. Most of them were infants; however, two adolescents were also treated. For all infants, general anesthesia was provided to allow safe and accurate TSEB irradiation. The prescribed dose varied from 16. Gy to 28. Gy depending on the irradiation schedule and patient condition. Usually, boost fields were applied to the scalp and perineum. Typical shields for fingernails, toenails and lenses were usually used. Conclusion: This paper revealed that TSEB therapy may be considered as a palliative treatment for pediatric patients with leukemia cutis. However, its role is still unclear and should be further investigated. © 2013 Greater Poland Cancer Centre.

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