Greater Cincinnati Water Works

Cincinnati, OH, United States

Greater Cincinnati Water Works

Cincinnati, OH, United States
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DENVER--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The Water Research Foundation and the American Water Works Association (AWWA), in partnership with West Virginia American Water, Greater Cincinnati Water Works, and Aqua America, Inc., have published a new report that developed a detailed methodology for identifying potential sources of contamination upstream of drinking water intakes, particularly from aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). A Methodology for Locating and Managing Dynamic Potential Source Water Contaminant D

Heringa M.B.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | Harmsen D.J.H.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | Beerendonk E.F.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | Reus A.A.,TNO | And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to determine the genotoxic activity of water after UV/H2O2 oxidation and GAC filtration. Pre-treated surface water from three locations was treated with UV/H2O2 with medium pressure (MP) lamps and passed through granulated activated carbon (GAC). Samples taken before and after each treatment step were extracted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed for genotoxicity using the Comet assay with HepG2 cells and the Ames II assay. The Comet assay showed no genotoxic response in any of the samples. In the Ames II, no genotoxic response was obtained with the TAMix (a mix of six strains), but the TA98 strain showed an increase in genotoxic activity after MP-UV/H2O2 for all three locations. GAC post treatment effectively reduced the activities to control levels at two of the three locations and to below the level of the pre-treated water at one site. The results indicate that UV/H2O2 treatment may lead to the formation of genotoxic by-products, which can be removed by subsequent GAC filtration. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Metz D.H.,Greater Cincinnati Water Works | Metz D.H.,University of Cincinnati | Meyer M.,Greater Cincinnati Water Works | Dotson A.,University of Alaska Anchorage | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2011

Advanced oxidation with ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) produces hydroxyl radicals that have the potential to degrade a wide-range of organic micro-pollutants in water. Yet, when this technology is used to reduce target contaminants, natural organic matter can be altered. This study evaluated disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor formation for UV/H2O2 while reducing trace organic contaminants in natural water (>90% for target pharmaceuticals, pesticides and taste and odor producing compounds and 80% atrazine degradation). A year-long UV/H2O2 pilot study was conducted to evaluate DBP precursor formation with varying water quality. The UV pilot reactors were operated to consistently achieve 80% atrazine degradation, allowing comparison of low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamp technologies for DBP precursor formation. Two process waters of differing quality were used as pilot influent, i.e., before and after granular activated carbon adsorption. DBP precursors increased under most of the conditions studied. Regulated trihalomethane formation potential increased through the UV/H2O2 reactors from 20 to 118%, depending on temperature and water quality. When Post-GAC water served as reactor influent, less DBPs were produced in comparison to conventionally treated water. Haloacetic acid (HAA5) increased when conventionally treated water served as UV/H2O2 pilot influent, but only increased slightly (MP lamp) when GAC treated water served as pilot influent. No difference in 3-day simulated distribution system DBP concentration was observed between LP and MP UV reactors when 80% atrazine degradation was targeted. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Metz D.H.,Greater Cincinnati Water Works | Metz D.H.,University of Cincinnati | Reynolds K.,Greater Cincinnati Water Works | Meyer M.,Greater Cincinnati Water Works | Dionysiou D.D.,University of Cincinnati
Water Research | Year: 2011

Greater Cincinnati Water Works (GCWW) evaluated the efficacy of ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide advanced oxidation (UV/H2O2) for reducing trace organic contaminants in natural water with varying water qualities. A year-long UV/H2O2 pilot study was conducted to examine a variety of seasonal and granular activated carbon (GAC) breakthrough conditions. The UV pilot-scale reactors were set to consistently achieve 80% atrazine degradation, allowing comparison of low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamp technologies for by-product formation. Because hydroxyl radicals react non-selectively with organic compounds, unintended by-product formation occurred. Total assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration increased through the reactors from 14 to 33% on average, depending on water quality. Natural organic matter (NOM) contains the precursors for AOC production, so when post-GAC water (versus conventionally treated water) served as reactor influent, less AOC was produced. No appreciable difference in AOC concentration was observed between LP and MP UV reactors. The Spirillum strain NOX fraction of the AOC increased from 50 to 65% on average, depending on the quality of the water. The increase in this fraction of AOC occurred because oxidation of NOM yielded smaller more assimilable organic compounds such as organic acids that are necessary for NOX growth. The Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P17 AOC concentration increased only when conventionally treated plant water was used as pilot influent. This organism thrives in waters of differing organic energy sources, but does not thrive well in carboxylic acids alone. The CONV water had more overall TOC that could contribute to higher P17 AOC counts. Biofilm coupon studies indicated that biofilms with greater heterotrophic plate counts were observed in the granular activated carbon (GAC) effluent streams receiving UV/H2O2 pre-treatment. Biofilm coupon studies additionally indicated that the effluent stream of the GAC column proceeded by the MP reactor exhibited more viable biofilm than the other GAC effluent streams based on an ATP-bioluminescence method. The increased viability of the biofilm produced by the MP UV reactor is likely a result of the multiple UV wavelengths and higher energy input characteristic of this technology. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Triantafyllidou S.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Lytle D.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Muhlen C.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Swertfeger J.,Greater Cincinnati Water Works
Water Research | Year: 2016

Tap water sampling and surface analysis of copper pipe/bathroom porcelain were performed to explore the fate of copper and silver during the first nine months of copper-silver ionization (CSI) applied to cold and hot water at a hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio. Ions dosed by CSI into the water at its point of entry to the hospital were inadvertently removed from hot water by a cation-exchange softener in one building (average removal of 72% copper and 51% silver). Copper at the tap was replenished from corrosion of the building's copper pipes but was typically unable to reach 200 μg/L in first-draw and flushed hot and cold water samples. Cold water lines had >20 μg/L silver at most of the taps that were sampled, which further increased after flushing. However, silver plating onto copper pipe surfaces (in the cold water line but particularly in the hot water line) prevented reaching 20 μg/L silver in cold and/or hot water of some taps. Aesthetically displeasing purple/grey stains in bathroom porcelain were attributed to chlorargyrite [AgCl(s)], an insoluble precipitate that formed when CSI-dosed Ag+ ions combined with Cl- ions that were present in the incoming water. Overall, CSI aims to control Legionella bacteria in drinking water, but plumbing material interactions, aesthetics and other implications also deserve consideration to holistically evaluate in-building drinking water disinfection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Rettie M.,Inc. 1 | Cossins F.,Greater Cincinnati Water Works
AWWA/WEF Utility Management Conference 2013 | Year: 2013

Utilities continue to look for ways to best leverage their capabilities. Many are relying on technology and best practices to better utilize existing data and improve efficiency and customer service. Others are going even a step further, looking beyond their own service areas to pursue opportunities to grow revenue through in-sourcing services (providing services to other utilities). When Greater Cincinnati Water Works (GCWW) developed their latest Strategic Business Plan, one of their goals addressed regional responsibilities - promoting and participating in regional resource optimization and information sharing. Soon after, when the opportunity arose to bid competitively on providing customer contact center and billing services for a regional wastewater utility, GCWW pursued it - ultimately with great success. © 2013 American Water Works Association.

Arandia-Perez E.,University of Cincinnati | Uber J.G.,University of Cincinnati | Boccelli D.L.,University of Cincinnati | Janke R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management | Year: 2014

In this paper, an overview of a strategy for automatic meter reading (AMR) data interpretation and aggregation is presented along with the proposed stochastic models adequate for representing the intrinsic characteristics of the data. Water demand measurements from single user accounts are obtained from an AMR system that continuously monitors consumption in different zones of Cincinnati, Ohio. The data represent volumetric measurements characterized by fixed increments, which depend on the sensitivity of the instruments used and occur at irregular times due to the polling method of the AMR system. Given the nature of the data, a nonhomogeneous Poisson process is proposed to model the arrivals of the increments within a selected time interval of 350 days. An exponential-polynomial-trigonometric rate function with multiple periodicities (EPTMP) is assumed to describe both trends and periodicities in the observed data. A specific methodology for estimating the parameters of the EPTMP rate function is presented, based on the method of maximum likelihood. In order to evaluate the estimation technique, a performance evaluation is carried out on synthetic data generated in simulation. Finally, the estimation method is applied and tested on samples of the complete AMR data set, which is obtained from aggregating randomly selected subsets of different magnitude. The results provide significant evidence of the numerical stability and accuracy of the modeling procedure and encourage the use in simulation and prediction of water demands at network nodes from available AMR data. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Piao H.,Greater Cincinnati Water Works
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2011 | Year: 2011

□ All-pipes distribution model is a valuable tool to identify potential solutions for water quality improvement • Hydraulic max day steady state analyses □ Ensure system meet hydraulic requirements • WQ modeling analyses □ Identify WQ concern areas □ Provide potential solutions for WQ improvement • Integration of hydraulic and WQ modeling □ Identify potential resolutions to meet both hydraulic and WQ goals. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved.

Dotson A.D.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Keen V.S.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Metz D.,Greater Cincinnati Water Works | Linden K.G.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Water Research | Year: 2010

Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has become popular as a primary disinfectant because it is very effective against Cryptosporidium and does not directly form regulated disinfection by-products. Higher UV doses and UV advanced oxidation (UV/H2O2) processes are under consideration for the treatment of trace organic pollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products). Despite the disinfection effectiveness of UV light, a secondary disinfectant capable of maintaining a distribution system residual is required to meet current U.S. regulation. This study investigated changes in disinfection by-product (DBP) formation attributed to UV or UV/H2O2 followed by application of free chlorine to quench hydrogen peroxide and provide residual disinfectant. At a UV dose of 1000mJ/cm2, trihalomethane (THM) yield increased by up to 4μg/mg-C and 13μg/mg-C when treated with low and medium pressure UV, respectively. With the addition of hydrogen peroxide, THM yield increased by up to 25μg/mg-C (5mg-H2O2/L) and 37μg/mg-C (10mg-H2O2/L). Although no changes in DBPs are expected during UV disinfection, application of UV advanced oxidation followed by chlorine addition was assessed with regard to impacts on DBP formation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hong Y.,Greater Cincinnati Water Works | Song H.,Sejong University | Karanfil T.,Clemson University
Water Research | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions, pH and bromide concentration in the formation of haloacetic acids (HAA) during chloramination. DOM from two surface waters with a low (2.9 L/mg-m) and high (5.1 L/mg-m) specific UV absorbance (SUVA254) values was isolated and fractionated into three fractions based on the hydrophobicity [i.e., hydrophobic (HPO), transphilic (TPH) and hydrophilic (HPI)]. DOM mass balances and DBP reactivity checks were performed to characterize the effects of isolation and fractionation steps. The fractions were chloraminated at three pHs and three bromide concentrations. The results showed that pH was the most important factor controlling HAA formation and speciation. The HAA yields significantly decreased with increase in pH from 6.3 to 9.0. The impact of bromide in the formation of brominated HAA species also became less important with increasing pH, and no brominated specie was detectable at pH 9. HPO fractions of the two source waters consistently showed higher HAA yields than TPH and HPI fractions. On the other hand, HPI fractions showed higher bromine incorporation than HPO and TPH fractions. To maintain higher and relatively stable combined chlorine residuals while reducing HAA formation, water utilities may consider keeping pH above 7.5 as one strategy. This will also lower the formation of brominated HAA species which have been shown to be more cyto- and geno-toxic than their chlorinated analogs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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