Holbrook C.M.,University of Maine, United States |
Holbrook C.M.,Great Lakes Science Center |
Kinnison M.T.,University of Maine, United States |
Zydlewski J.,University of Maine, United States
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2011
Survival, distribution, and behavior of hatchery (n=493) and naturally reared (n=133) smolts of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar migrating through the Penobscot River and estuary in Maine were evaluated with acoustic telemetry in 2005 and 2006. Survival and use of a secondary migration path (the Stillwater Branch) were estimated with a multistate mark-recapture model. Higher rates of mortality per kilometer (range = 0.01-0.22) were observed near release sites and within reaches that contained three particular dams: Howland, West Enfield, and Milford dams. Estimated total survival of tagged hatchery smolts through entire individual reaches containing those dams ranged from 0.52 (SE = 0.18) to 0.94 (SE = 0.09), whereas survival through most of the reaches without dams exceeded 0.95. Of those smolts that survived to the Penobscot River-Stillwater Branch split at Marsh Island, most (≥74%) remained in the main stem around Marsh Island, where they experienced lower survival than fish that used the Stillwater Branch. Movement rates of hatchery-reared smolts were significantly lower through reaches containing dams than through reaches that lacked dams. Smolts arriving at dams during the day experienced longer delays than smolts arriving at night. Planned removal of two dams in this system is expected to enhance the passage of smolts through the main-stem corridor. However, the dams currently scheduled for removal (Great Works and Veazie dams) had less influence on smolt survival than some of the dams that will remain. This case study shows that by examining prerestoration migration dynamics throughout entire river systems rather than just in the vicinity of particular dams, tracking studies can help prioritize restoration efforts or predict the costs and benefits of future hydrosystem changes. © American Fisheries Society 2011.
Hayden T.A.,SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry |
Hayden T.A.,Great Lakes Science Center |
Limburg K.E.,SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry |
Pine W.E.,University of Florida
River Research and Applications | Year: 2013
Fish otolith and water chemistry were assessed in the Grand Canyon reach of the Colorado River and its tributaries. Aqueous strontium and selenium (in ratio to calcium) and carbon stable isotopic ratios were identified as markers with excellent potential to track the provenance and movements of the endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. Although otolith δ13C and Sr/Ca varied proportionately to water chemistry and provided a framework for detailed study of humpback chub movements, otolith Se/Ca showed ambiguous tracking of known water chemistries. As an application, we document the natal source and movement dynamics of n=10 humpback chub and compare these findings from otolith microchemistry with the current paradigm of humpback chub spawning ecology. We found that seven of ten fish follow the current early life history paradigm and were spawned in the Little Colorado River and subsequently emigrated to the main stem Colorado River as juveniles. However, the otolith markers of three fish suggest an alternative early life trajectory with unknown provenance. Age and growth analyses demonstrate seasonally higher growth rates in the warmer Little Colorado River compared with the Colorado River. Combining natural markers with age and growth reconstructions provides a powerful tool for assessing the habitat use and success of humpback chub in the Grand Canyon. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Madenjian C.P.,Great Lakes Science Center |
Stapanian M.A.,Great Lakes Science Center |
Cott P.A.,Wilfrid Laurier University |
Rediske R.R.,Grand Valley State University |
O'Keefe J.P.,Grand Valley State University
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014
Total polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations (ΣRPCBs) in whole fish were determined for 18 ripe female burbot Lota lota and 14 ripe male burbot from Great Slave Lake, a lake with no known point sources of PCBs. In addition, ΣPCBs were determined in both somatic tissue and gonads for a randomly selected subset of 5 females and 5 males. Mean ΣPCBs for females and males were 2.89 and 3.76 ng/g, respectively. Thus, males had 30% greater RPCBs than females. Based on ΣPCB determinations for somatic tissue and gonads, ΣPCBs of females and males would be expected to decrease by 18% and increase by 6%, respectively, immediately after spawning due to the release of gametes. Results from a previous study in eastern Lake Erie indicated that males had 28 and 71% greater ΣPCBs than females from populations of younger (ages 6-13 years) and older (ages 14-17 years) burbot, respectively. Thus, although younger burbot from Lake Erie had approximately 50 times greater ΣPCBs than Great Slave Lake burbot, the relative difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes was remarkably similar across both populations. Our results supported the contention that the widening of the difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes in older burbot from Lake Erie was attributable to a "hot spot" effect operating on older burbot because Lake Erie has received PCB point source loadings. Our results also supported the contention that male fish expend energy at a rate between 15 and 30% greater than females. Eventually, these results will be useful in developing sex-specific bioenergetics models for fish. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.
News Article | March 14, 2016
The study's results suggest that Lake Huron resource managers should focus their efforts on restoration of native fish species such as lake trout, walleye, lake whitefish and lake herring. The findings also suggest that if current trends continue, Lake Michigan will likely experience an alewife collapse similar to Lake Huron's, followed by the crash of its Chinook salmon fishery there. "These results serve as a reality check for those who continue to pressure the resource managers to stock Chinook salmon in Lake Huron," said study co-author Sara Adlerstein-Gonzalez, a fishery scientist at U-M's School of Natural Resources and Environment. "The findings are also good news for native fish species and for the restoration of the entire Lake Huron ecosystem. Maybe we should celebrate the improvements in the native fish populations and try to adapt to this new situation." A paper summarizing the findings is scheduled for online publication in the journal Ecosystems on March 14. The paper's first author is Yu-Chun Kao, who conducted the work for his doctoral dissertation at U-M under Adlerstein-Gonzalez. He is now a postdoctoral researcher at Michigan State University and works at the U.S. Geological Survey's Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor. The other author of the Ecosystems paper is Edward Rutherford of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory in Ann Arbor. Pacific salmon were introduced into the Great Lakes 50 years ago to establish a new recreational fishery and to help control alewives, a non-native species that entered the lakes in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Alewives soon became the main prey species for Chinook salmon and lake trout, which are staples of a Great Lakes fishery valued at more than $4 billion per year. Lake Huron's alewife population collapsed in 2003, and a sharp Chinook salmon decline soon followed. The state of Michigan and the province of Ontario stopped stocking Chinook salmon in southern Lake Huron in 2014 but continue to stock in the northern part of the lake. In Lake Michigan, where populations of both alewives and salmon are declining, stocking of Chinooks continues at significantly reduced levels. The new study is the first attempt to use a food-web modeling approach to assess the various factors behind the 2003 collapse of Lake Huron alewives and the implications for future fish populations there. The total weight or "biomass" of alewives in Lake Huron plunged by more than 90 percent between 2002 and 2003, and the exact causes of the collapse are still debated by anglers and biologists. Some researchers have suggested the alewife collapse was mainly due to too much predation by Chinook salmon and native lake trout. Others say it likely resulted from a drop in food availability tied to the explosive spread of zebra and quagga mussels starting in the late 1980s. The computer simulations in the new study show that the collapse was caused by a combination of predation and food limitation—and that predation alone would not have caused the crash. The spread of the non-native mussels, coupled with declining levels of the nutrient phosphorus entering the lake from rivers and streams, were essential factors, according to the new study. The Lake Huron dominoes fell sequentially, according to the report. First came increased predation of alewives, due initially to heavier stocking of Chinook salmon and later the result of increased natural reproduction of salmon and a drop in sea-lamprey mortality. Predation of Lake Huron alewives by Chinook salmon likely peaked in the mid-1980s and then remained roughly constant until the alewife collapse, according to the new simulations. Beginning in the 1990s, quagga mussels spread quickly at a time when the level of phosphorus flowing into the lake from rivers and streams was dropping in response to nutrient abatement programs initiated in the 1970s. Mussels in Lake Huron's Saginaw Bay compounded the problem by sucking up and storing nutrients near the shore, preventing them from making it into Lake Huron's main basin. The loss of essential nutrients in the main basin reduced the amount of algae at the base of the Lake Huron food web. Zooplankton, tiny animals that feed on algae and that provide food for small fish such as alewives and rainbow smelt, suffered. At the time, alewives and rainbow smelt were the two most important prey species for Chinook salmon in Lake Huron. The new computer simulations show that rainbow smelt suffered significant declines before alewives did, dropping 78 percent by 2002. Deprived of a favorite food, Chinook salmon began to rely more heavily on alewives, and this increased predation hastened the alewife population collapse, according to the study. This sequence of events can be used to assess the likelihood of an alewife and Chinook salmon collapse in lakes Michigan and Ontario, the researchers said. "We are seeing all the same warning signs in lakes Michigan and Ontario," Kao said. "We're seeing decreasing nutrient loads, a decrease in soft-bodied, bottom-dwelling invertebrates due to the mussels, a decrease in rainbow smelt and, as a result, Chinook salmon feeding almost solely on alewives." Explore further: An Illuminating Great Lakes Tale: The Alewife and the Opossum Shrimp
News Article | December 20, 2016
COLUMBUS, Ohio--(BUSINESS WIRE)--BioOhio is excited to announce its 30th Anniversary with a celebration to be held in Cleveland where the organization was founded in 1987. The 2017 BioOhio Annual Conference and 30th Anniversary Celebration will be a celebration of statewide growth in all areas of bioscience, from medical devices, pharmaceuticals, lab equipment, and regenerative medicine, to agricultural compounds, alternative fuels, wellness products, clinical research, digital health, and wearables. The venue, the Great Lakes Science Center, was established to make science, technology, engineering and math come alive; and during the Conference, it will come alive with excitement and success. Attendees will experience different parts of the Center as breakfast, networking breaks, lunch, and a reception move around this unique facility. When: April 23-24, 2017. An opening reception will be held April 23, with the main conference being held on April 24. Join us for a fun and entertaining reception in Cleveland, Ohio. Details to be announced. A full day of engaging panels and excellent networking, set at the fascinating Great Lakes Science Center, will begin with breakfast at 7:30 and conclude with a networking reception at 5:00. Patient Perspectives - The event will include multiple opportunities to hear first-hand how bioscience has positively impacted individuals' lives. Ohio Bioscience Timeline - From 1803 to today, including the Edison Biotechnology Center (EBTC), OMERIS, and BioOhio. Join us for an insightful trip through Ohio's bioscience history, from how we got started to where we are now. Ohio Success Stories - Several fireside chat style discussions will be held to explore success and lessons learned in Ohio's bioscience community. Licensing and Start-up Opportunities - BioOhio Founding and Leadership Members will present exciting opportunities and discoveries from their institutions. Startup Pitch Competition - Six companies chosen from Ohio's six Entrepreneurial Signature Programs will have five minutes to pitch their product or service, followed by five minutes of questions from a panel of Ohio experts. Keynote Futurist Speaker - The day started with how we began, now hear where we are headed... Visit BioOhio.com/ac to learn more and register today! There are a number of sponsorship opportunities available for this event to accommodate any budget, ranging from 30th Anniversary memorabilia, to a photo booth, to the conference mobile app. All sponsorship levels offer a broad range of marketing exposure for your organization. Support BioOhio's Annual Conference and 30th Anniversary Celebration by contacting Jen Goldsberry at firstname.lastname@example.org or (614) 675-3686 x 1004. Come join us to celebrate what Ohio's bioscience community has become, engage with friends, make new connections, and set our sights on where the industry is headed.
News Article | December 28, 2016
— From a recent seizure in the South China Sea to a world-first, month-long mission to Lake Michigan, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are in the news. For over 65 years, Innerspace Corporation has designed and built the kinds of underwater thrusters that today's AUVs rely on for propulsion. Making use of the most advanced manufacturing techniques and thruster technologies, Innerspace helps enable everything from unmanned mine-hunters to devices used in aquaculture. With the global AUV industry projected in a recent Wise Guy report to grow at a compound annual growth rate of over 15%, Innerspace is poised to help carry this increasingly important technology far into the future. Those interested in what the company has to offer can learn more about its full range of products at the Innerspace website at http://innerspacethrusters.com/. "Of all the contemporary means of exploring submarine environments, autonomous underwater vehicles rank as some of the most exciting and impressive of all," said Innerspace Engineering Manager Omar Rafeh, "When this company was founded over 65 years ago, one of today's advanced AUVs would have seemed like something straight out of science fiction. By always staying at the leading edge of technology since, Innerspace Corporation has remained the world's top producer of underwater thrusters. With so much talk about AUVs in the news in recent weeks, we're proud to be an important part of this exciting movement." Despite their prominence and nearness, the five Great Lakes that lie along the border between Canada and the United States remain in many respects poorly understood. A recently concluded AUV mission led by the U.S. Geological Survey's Great Lakes Science Center and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute sought to fill in some of the details. For a full month, a vehicle named "Tethys" continuously, autonomously explored the waters of Lake Michigan, collecting over 150,000 data points in the process. Coming on top of the recent seizure by China of an AUV operated by the American military, news of the success of Tethys' Lake Michigan mission has generated even more interest in the technology among the general public. For more than 65 years, Covina-based Innerspace Corporation has specialized in producing the kinds of high-performing underwater thrusters that today's most capable AUVs use for propulsion as they carry out their various autonomous missions. With detailed product information, performance data, reference materials and more available at the Innerspace website, all those interested in AUVs will enjoy visiting http://innerspacethrusters.com/. As the world's leading designer and manufacturer of underwater thrusters, Innerspace also provides regular updates at http://innerspacethrusters.com/ about how they company's products are being used in AUVs, remotely operate underwater vehicles, submarines, and other interesting applications. About Innerspace Corporation: For over sixty-five years, Innerspace Corporation has been number one in underwater thrusters, always maintaining an industry-leading commitment to excellence and the highest standards of quality and service. For more information, please visit http://innerspacethrusters.com/
Pothoven S.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
Bunnell D.B.,Great Lakes Science Center
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2016
Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine individual and population consumption by Bloater Coregonus hoyi in Lake Michigan during three time periods with variable Bloater density: 1993–1996 (high), 1998–2002 (intermediate), and 2009–2011 (low). Despite declines in Bloater abundance between 1993 and 2011, our results did not show any density-dependent compensatory response in annual individual consumption, specific consumption, or proportion of maximum consumption consumed. Diporeia spp. accounted for a steadily decreasing fraction of annual consumption, and Bloater were apparently unable to eat enough Mysis diluviana or other prey to account for the loss of Diporeia in the environment. The fraction of production of both Diporeia and Mysis that was consumed by the Bloater population decreased over time so that the consumption-to-production ratio for Diporeia + Mysis was 0.74, 0.26, and 0.14 in 1993–1996, 1998–2002, and 2009–2011, respectively. Although high Bloater numbers in the 1980s to 1990s may have had an influence on populations of Diporeia, Bloater were not the main factor driving Diporeia to a nearly complete disappearance because Diporeia continued to decline when Bloater predation demands were lessening. Thus, there appears to be a decoupling in the inverse relationship between predator and prey abundance in Lake Michigan. Compared with Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, the other dominant planktivore in the lake, Bloater have a lower specific consumption and higher gross conversion efficiency (GCE), indicating that the lake can support a higher biomass of Bloater than Alewife. However, declines in Bloater GCE since the 1970s and the absence of positive responses in consumption variables following declines in abundance suggest that productivity in Lake Michigan might not be able to support the same biomass of Bloater as in the past. Received May 11, 2015; accepted September 8, 2015 © 2016, American Fisheries Society 2016.
Riseng C.M.,University of Michigan |
Wiley M.J.,University of Michigan |
Seelbach P.W.,Great Lakes Science Center |
Stevenson R.J.,Michigan State University
Journal of Great Lakes Research | Year: 2010
Michigan stream fish and macroinvertebrate community data from multiple sources were combined to conduct a statewide assessment of riverine ecological condition. Using regionally normalized metrics to correct for methodological inconsistencies and natural variation and statistically based scoring criteria, about 50% of all sampled sites were in expected or better ecological condition, 30% were ecologically impaired, and 20% were marginal. Structural Equation Modeling with this regional assessment dataset indicated that land use effects were more important than effects of point-source discharges. Biological metrics appeared to be more sensitive to urban than agricultural land use, and riparian than basin-wide agricultural land use. Invertebrate communities were marginally more sensitive than fish communities to the suite of anthropogenic stressors examined. Using the observed assessment status from sampled sites, Classification and Regression Tree models were used to estimate ecological condition in the state's remaining unsampled river segments. Combining observed and estimated site scores, 25% of the state's river kms were estimated to be impaired, with the Erie and St. Clair basins having the highest degree of impairment (52% and 44% of total channel lengths, respectively) and lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron basins had the lowest degree of impairment at 4%, 21% and 31%, respectively. We argue that correlations between the state of the Great Lakes and the ecological conditions of their tributary systems reflect both direct impact transmission from watershed to receiving waters, and also non-causal correlation due to shared anthropogenic stressors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Buchinger T.J.,Michigan State University |
Wang H.,Michigan State University |
Li W.,Michigan State University |
Johnson N.S.,Great Lakes Science Center
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013
Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Langseth B.J.,Michigan State University |
Jones M.L.,Michigan State University |
Riley S.C.,Great Lakes Science Center
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2014
Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) is a widely used modeling tool in fishery research and management. Ecopath requires a mass-balanced snapshot of a food web at a particular point in time, which Ecosim then uses to simulate changes in biomass over time. Initial inputs to Ecopath, including estimates for biomasses, production to biomass ratios, consumption to biomass ratios, and diets, rarely produce mass balance, and thus ad hoc changes to inputs are required to balance the model. There has been little previous research of whether ad hoc changes to achieve mass balance affect Ecosim simulations. We constructed an EwE model for the offshore community of Lake Huron, and balanced the model using four contrasting but realistic methods. The four balancing methods were based on two contrasting approaches; in the first approach, production of unbalanced groups was increased by increasing either biomass or the production to biomass ratio, while in the second approach, consumption of predators on unbalanced groups was decreased by decreasing either biomass or the consumption to biomass ratio. We compared six simulation scenarios based on three alternative assumptions about the extent to which mortality rates of prey can change in response to changes in predator biomass (i.e., vulnerabilities) under perturbations to either fishing mortality or environmental production. Changes in simulated biomass values over time were used in a principal components analysis to assess the comparative effect of balancing method, vulnerabilities, and perturbation types. Vulnerabilities explained the most variation in biomass, followed by the type of perturbation. Choice of balancing method explained little of the overall variation in biomass. Under scenarios where changes in predator biomass caused large changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., high vulnerabilities), variation in biomass was greater than when changes in predator biomass caused only small changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., low vulnerabilities), and was amplified when environmental production was increased. When standardized to mean changes in biomass within each scenario, scenarios when vulnerabilities were low and when fishing mortality was increased explained the most variation in biomass. Our findings suggested that approaches to balancing Ecopath models have relatively little effect on changes in biomass over time, especially when compared to assumptions about how mortality rates of prey change in response to changes in predator biomass. We concluded that when constructing food-web models using EwE, determining the effect of changes in predator biomass on mortality rates of prey should be prioritized over determining the best way to balance the model. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.