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Great Lakes, United States

Bain M.B.,Cornell University | Cangelosi A.,Northeast Midwest Institute | Eder T.A.,Great Lakes Commission
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

Great Lakes environmental agencies want to build the capacity to understand microbe threats and develop responses and mitigation plans in advance of crises such as large fish kills. We developed a collaborative plan for monitoring microbes across the Great Lakes of North America to meet practical needs with the latest science and testing technology. The goal was to build understanding of harmful microbes and be rapid, relevant, and robust in addressing threats. The program was oriented for adaptability to changing threats and will target areas of human activity, especially shipping ports and invasion hotspots. Sampling will be aimed at fish and water with application of molecular testing procedures that will allow rapid, efficient, and very sensitive detection of microbes. Compared to other programs with similar aims, our agenda is broader in scope, focuses on building knowledge, uses a representative sampling design, and will provide findings for proactive management and response planning. The reliance on molecular testing procedures, sample archiving, and rapid and broadly distributed results distinguishes our approach from the other similar programs. Fitting microbe monitoring into the Great Lakes environmental management agenda is expected to add an important new dimension to ecosystem monitoring and yield new knowledge of importance for management. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Abbasi G.,University of Toronto | Buser A.M.,ETH Zurich | Soehl A.,Great Lakes Commission | Murray M.W.,National Wildlife Federation | Diamond M.L.,University of Toronto
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The time-dependent stock of PBDEs contained in in-use products (excluding building materials and large vehicles) was estimated for the U.S. and Canada from 1970 to 2020 based on product consumption patterns, PBDE contents, and product lifespan. The stocks of penta- and octaBDE peaked in in-use products at 17 000 (95% confidence interval: 6000-70 000) and 4000 (1000-50 000) tonnes in 2004, respectively, and for decaBDE at 140 000 (40 000-300 000) tonnes in 2008. Products dominating PBDE usage were polyurethane foam used in furniture (65% of pentaBDE), casings of electrical and electronic equipment or EEE (80% of octaBDE), and EEE and automotive seating (35% of decaBDE for each category). The largest flow of PBDEs in products, excluding automotive sector, to the waste phase occurred between 2005 and 2008 at ∼10 000 tonnes per year. Total consumption of penta-, octa-, and decaBDE from 1970 to 2020 in products considered was estimated at ∼46 000, ∼25 000, and ∼380 000 tonnes, respectively. Per capita usage was estimated at 10-250, 10-150, and 200-2000 g·capita-1·y-1 for penta-, octa-, and decaBDE, respectively, over the time span. Considering only the first use (no reuse and/or storage) of PBDE-containing products, approximately 60% of the stock of PBDEs in 2014 or ∼70 000 tonnes, of which 95% is decaBDE, will remain in the use phase in 2020. Total emissions to air of all PBDEs from the in-use product stock was estimated at 70-700 tonnes between 1970 and 2020, with annual emissions of 0.4-4 tonnes·y-1 for each of penta- and octaBDE and 0.35-3.5 tonnes·y-1 for decaBDE in 2014. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Kowalski K.P.,U.S. Geological Survey | Bacon C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bickford W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Braun H.,Great Lakes Commission | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

A growing body of literature supports microbial symbiosis as a foundational principle for the competitive success of invasive plant species. Further exploration of the relationships between invasive species and their associated microbiomes, as well as the interactions with the microbiomes of native species, can lead to key new insights into invasive success and potentially new and effective control approaches. In this manuscript, we review microbial relationships with plants, outline steps necessary to develop invasive species control strategies that are based on those relationships, and use the invasive plant species Phragmites australis (common reed) as an example of how development of microbial-based control strategies can be enhanced using a collective impact approach. The proposed science agenda, developed by the Collaborative for Microbial Symbiosis and Phragmites Management, contains a foundation of sequential steps and mutually-reinforcing tasks to guide the development of microbial-based control strategies for Phragmites and other invasive species. Just as the science of plant-microbial symbiosis can be transferred for use in other invasive species, so too can the model of collective impact be applied to other avenues of research and management. © 2015 Kowalski, Bacon, Bickford, Braun, Clay, Leduc-Lapierre, Lillard, McCormick, Nelson, Torres, White and Wilcox.

Braun H.A.,Great Lakes Commission | Kowalski K.P.,U.S. Geological Survey | Hollins K.,Great Lakes Commission
Biological Invasions | Year: 2016

To address the invasion of non-native Phragmites in the Great Lakes, researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey—Great Lakes Science Center partnered with the Great Lakes Commission in 2012 to establish the Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative (GLPC). The GLPC is a regional-scale partnership established to improve collaboration among stakeholders and increase the effectiveness of non-native Phragmites management and research. Rather than forming a traditional partnership with a narrowly defined goal, the GLPC follows the principles of collective impact to engage stakeholders, guide progress, and align resources to address this complex, regional challenge. In this paper, the concept and tenets of collective impact are described, the GLPC is offered as a model for other natural resource-focused collective impact efforts, and steps for establishing collaboratives are presented. Capitalizing on the interactive collective impact approach, the GLPC is moving toward a broadly accepted common agenda around which agencies and individuals will be able to better align their actions and generate measureable progress in the regional campaign to protect healthy, diverse ecosystems from damage caused by non-native Phragmites. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA)

News Article | January 7, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Sea lampreys are bad news and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has come up with a new way to deal with the invasive species by registering a mating pheromone as a biopesticide. Called 3kPZS, the sea lamprey mating hormone released by males works like an alluring perfume, attracting females onto nesting sites. However, as a biopesticide, it will be used to lure female sea lampreys into baiting sites where they can be collected before they get the opportunity to breed. Researchers have been studying how to use pheromones to manipulate sea lamprey's behavior since the 1990s. The mating pheromone 3kPZS has been tested in baiting sites before and the results of those tests paved the way for it to be registered for official use as part of the EPA's sea lamprey control program. According to Dr. Weiming Li, a Michigan State University professor part of the Great Lakes Commission's Partnership for Ecosystem Research and Management, the field trial carried out to test the effectiveness of 3kPZS showed a boost in trapping efficiency by up to 53 percent. Additionally, baited traps were found to capture twice more sea lampreys compared to traps without baits. Initial trials prior to the registration used pheromones naturally derived from male sea lampreys but a synthetic version will also be manufactured in partnership with private company Bridge Organics. The EPA registration applies to both synthesized 3kPZS and a mixture of solvents and the synthesized pheromone used in the field. U.S. Geological Survey director Dr. Suzette Kimball referred to it as a milestone, the culmination of combined efforts to come up with cutting-edge ways to control the sea lamprey population in the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes area represents a $7-billion fishery industry. Once the biopesticide is registered in both the U.S. and Canada, it will officially become part of the Fisheries and Oceans Canada and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's arsenal to control the sea lamprey population. Aside from biopesticides, traps, barriers and lampricides are used. "U.S. EPA registration of the sea lamprey mating pheromone opens the door for use of the pheromone in the commission's sea lamprey control program, which protects Great Lakes fisheries from destruction caused by invasive sea lampreys," said Dr. Robert Hecky, chair of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. A biopesticide refers to any substance that is naturally occurring and can be used for controlling pests. Others registered include disparlure, a pheromone used for detecting and controlling small gypsy moth infestations. 3kPZS is the first vertebrate biopesticide registered.

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