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Elko, NV, United States

Great Basin College is a member of the Nevada System of Higher Education, located in Elko, Nevada, USA. Opened in 1967 as "Elko Community College", it was later renamed to "Northern Nevada Community College" and then to its current name. It has 3,436 students. Wikipedia.

Burns J.M.,University of Alaska Anchorage | Lestyk K.,University of Alaska Anchorage | Freistroffer D.,Great Basin College | Hammill M.O.,Maurice Lamontagne Institute
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology | Year: 2015

In adult marine mammals, muscles can sustain aerobic metabolism during dives in part because they contain large oxygen (O2) stores and metabolic rates are low. However, young pups have significantly lower tissue O2stores and much higher mass-specific metabolic rates. To investigate how these differences may influence muscle function during dives, we measured the activities of enzymes involved in aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways (citrate synthase [CS], β-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase [HOAD], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) and the LDH isoform profile in six muscles from 41 harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and 30 hooded(Cystophora cristata) seals ranging in age from fetal to adult. All neonatal muscles had significantly higher absolute but lower metabolically scaled CS and HOAD activities than adults (~70% and ~85% lower, respectively). Developmental increases in LDH activity lagged that of aerobic enzymes and were not accompanied by changes in isozyme profile, suggesting that changes in enzyme concentration rather than structure determine activity levels. Biochemical maturation proceeded faster in the major locomotory muscles. In combination, findings suggest that pup muscles are unable to support strenuous aerobic exercise or rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism during early diving activities and that pups’ high mass-specific metabolic rates may play a key role in limiting the ability of their muscles to support underwater foraging. © 2015 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

Matula T.,Great Basin College | Greene K.A.,6632 Turina Road
Earth and Space 2012 - Proceedings of the 13th ASCE Aerospace Division Conference and the 5th NASA/ASCE Workshop on Granular Materials in Space Exploration | Year: 2012

The permanent settlement of the Moon will begin with a single human habitation, one that is designed to be both sustainable and expandable. But in order for it to be both sustainable and expandable it will be necessary to consider the economic, organizational, and legal requirements as well the technology of its design from the beginning. This paper will examine those factors and how they will impact the basic "design" of this facility. A key argument is that the facility should not be "over-designed" and that the usual "aerospace approach" to design will be counterproductive when applied to the design of a facility with mixed uses and multiple stakeholders, in a fixed location. The second theme is that we are far more likely to succeed on the Moon if we adopt an evolutionary, not a programmatic strategy towards the first settlements, and that the first facilities built, in particular, must be designed to evolve and adapt to the changing needs of the first settlement. This "design to evolve" approach will need to consider details such as: the ownership structure, facility management, and operational control. Especially important will be how users will be able to "buy in", and also how to fund infrastructure expansion as the settlement grows. The focus of the paper is on the interaction of the business model for a lunar settlement and the technical requirements for building a sustainable settlement on the Moon. Analogies with remote industrial facilities on Earth are also discussed. © ASCE 2012.

Bagwe R.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Bagwe R.,Great Basin College | Beniash E.,University of Pittsburgh | Sokolova I.M.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2015

Cadmium (Cd) and elevated temperatures are common stressors in estuarine and coastal environments. Elevated temperature can sensitize estuarine organisms to the toxicity of metals such as Cd and vice versa, but the physiological mechanisms of temperature-Cd interactions are not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that interactive effects of elevated temperature and Cd stress involve Cd-induced reduction of the aerobic scope of an organism thereby narrowing the thermal tolerance window of oysters. We determined the effects of prolonged Cd exposure (50μgCdl-1for 30 days) on the upper critical temperature of aerobic metabolism (assessed by accumulation of anaerobic end products l-alanine, succinate and acetate), cellular energy status (assessed by the tissue levels of adenylates, phosphagen/aphosphagen and glycogen and lipid reserves) and oxidative damage during acute temperature rise (20-36°C) in the eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. The upper critical temperature (TcII) was shifted to lower values (from 28 to 24°C) in Cd-exposed oysters in spring and was lower in both control and Cd-exposed groups in winter (24 and <20°C, respectively). This indicates a reduction of thermal tolerance of Cd-exposed oysters associated with a decrease of the aerobic scope of the organism and early transition to partial anaerobiosis. Acute warming had no negative effects on tissue energy reserves or parameters of cellular energy status of oysters (except a decrease in adenylate content at the extreme temperature of 36°C) but led to an increase in oxidative lesions of proteins at extreme temperatures. These data show that transition to partial anaerobiosis (indicated by the accumulation of anaerobic end products) is the most sensitive biomarker of temperature-induced transition to energetically non-sustainable state in oysters, whereas disturbances in the cellular energy status (i.e. decline in adenylate and phosphagen levels) and oxidative stress ensue at considerably higher temperatures, nearing the lethal range. This study indicates that long-term exposure of oysters to environmentally relevant levels of Cd may increase their sensitivity to elevated temperatures during seasonal warming and/or the global climate change in polluted estuaries. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Elithorp Jr. J.A.,Great Basin College
Surveying and Land Information Science | Year: 2010

The objective of this paper is to profile the student population of the online four-year degree Land Surveying Program at Great Basin College, compare this profile to that of the typical residence surveying and mapping program, and discuss the issues raised in providing educational services to the online group of students. It is too early to propose solutions or provide complete explanations as the issues are dynamic and an equilibrium position may not have been found. A secondary objective is to explore the possible impact of this profile in explaining the mechanisms of how new members are recruited into the profession and the impact this has on higher education and licensure.

Prewitt J.S.,University of Alaska Anchorage | Freistroffer D.V.,Great Basin College | Schreer J.F.,The State University of New York at Potsdam | Hammill M.O.,Maurice Lamontagne Institute | Burns J.M.,University of Alaska Anchorage
Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology | Year: 2010

Adult marine mammal muscles rely upon a suite of adaptations for sustained aerobic metabolism in the absence of freely available oxygen (O2). Although the importance of these adaptations for supporting aerobic diving patterns of adults is well understood, little is known about postnatal muscle development in young marine mammals. However, the typical pattern of vertebrate muscle development, and reduced tissue O2 stores and diving ability of young marine mammals suggest that the physiological properties of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pup muscle will differ from those of adults. We examined myoglobin (Mb) concentration, and the activities of citrate synthase (CS), β-hydroxyacyl coA dehydrogenase (HOAD), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in muscle biopsies from harbor seal pups throughout the nursing period, and compared these biochemical parameters to those of adults. Pups had reduced O2 carrying capacity ([Mb] 28-41% lower than adults) and reduced metabolically scaled catabolic enzyme activities (LDH/RMR 20-58% and CS/RMR 29-89% lower than adults), indicating that harbor seal pup muscles are biochemically immature at birth and weaning. This suggests that pup muscles do not have the ability to support either the aerobic or anaerobic performance of adult seals. This immaturity may contribute to the lower diving capacity and behavior in younger pups. In addition, the trends in myoglobin concentration and enzyme activity seen in this study appear to be developmental and/or exercise-driven responses that together work to produce the hypoxic endurance phenotype seen in adults, rather than allometric effects due to body size. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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