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Smith A.M.,University of Auckland | Smith A.M.,Gravida National Research Center for Growth and Development | Graham E.S.,University of Auckland | Feng S.X.,University of Auckland | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The chemokine Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) are widely used indicators of glial activation and neuroinflammation and are up-regulated in many brain disorders. These inflammatory mediators have been widely studied in rodent models of brain disorders, but less work has been undertaken using human brain cells. In this study we investigate the regulation of HLA and IP-10, as well as other cytokines and chemokines, in microglia, astrocytes, pericytes, and meningeal fibroblasts derived from biopsy and autopsy adult human brain, using immunocytochemistry and a Cytometric Bead Array. Interferonγ (IFNγ) increased microglial HLA expression, but contrary to data in rodents, the antiinflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) did not inhibit this increase in HLA, nor did TGFβ1 affect basal microglial HLA expression or IFNγ-induced astrocytic HLA expression. In contrast, IFNγ-induced and basal microglial HLA expression, but not IFNγ-induced astrocytic HLA expression, were strongly inhibited by macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). IFNγ also strongly induced HLA expression in pericytes and meningeal fibroblasts, which do not basally express HLA, and this induction was completely blocked by TGFβ1, but not affected by M-CSF. In contrast, TGFβ1 did not block the IFNγ-induced increase in IP-10 in pericytes and meningeal fibroblasts. These results show that IFNγ, TGFβ1 and M-CSF have species- and cell type-specific effects on human brain cells that may have implications for their roles in adult human brain inflammation. © 2013 Smith et al.

Sales F.A.,Agresearch Ltd. | Sales F.A.,Gravida National Research Center for Growth and Development | Sales F.A.,Massey University | Sales F.A.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to determine the association between intracellular free AA (FAA) profiles in skeletal muscle with muscle growth in twin and singleton fetuses in late pregnancy and at weaning, under an ad libitum feeding regime of the dam. Plasma from singleton- (n = 9) and twin-bearing (n = 10) ewes at d 140 of pregnancy and FAA in the semitendinosus muscle (STM) from the corresponding fetuses were studied. At weaning, intracellular STM FAA concentrations were compared between twins at the same age as singletons (Twin(age); n = 17) and at the same weight as singletons (Twin(wt); n = 17) to that of singletons (n = 20). Twin fetuses were 15% lighter (P = 0.03) with a 20% lighter STM (P = 0.02) compared to singletons. Maternal plasma FAA were similar (P ≥ 0.17) between singleton- and twinbearing ewes. Twin fetuses had greater (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of glutamine, histidine, and methionine and lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of aspartate, citrulline, glutamate, and ornithine compared with singletons. In fetal STM, twins had lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of aspartate and valine and greater (P < 0.01) concentration of methionine. Correlations were found between fetal STM weight and intracellular concentrations of arginine (r = 0.66, P < 0.01) and glutamine (r = 0.49, P < 0.01). Compared to singletons at weaning, Twin(age) were 16% lighter (P < 0.01) and the STM weight was proportionately 16% lighter (P < 0.01). For Twin(wt), the magnitude of the difference for STM weight was reduced to 8% lighter (P = 0.02). Compared to singletons, Twin(age) lambs had greater (P < 0.05) intracellular concentrations of glutamine, histidine, threonine, asparagine, alanine, serine, and glutamate but reduced taurine. The differences in FAA concentrations were less between Twin(wt) and singletons than between Twin(age) and singletons. Positive correlations were found between leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, and tyrosine muscle concentration and STM weight at weaning. Males differed from females in intracellular FAA both in late pregnancy and at weaning. Twins had reduced RNA content during pregnancy and at weaning, suggesting a lower capacity for protein accretion. These data suggest that specific FAA concentrations are associated with differences in muscle growth during late pregnancy, notably arginine and glutamine, and reduced protein synthesis capacity. However, the relevance of specific FAA varies according to stage of development and sex of the lamb. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

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