Gravida National Center for Growth and Development

New Zealand

Gravida National Center for Growth and Development

New Zealand
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Chatterjee A.,University of Otago | Stockwell P.A.,University of Otago | Stockwell P.A.,Center for Innovation | Horsfield J.A.,University of Otago | And 3 more authors.
Genomics Data | Year: 2014

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate model organism that is widely used for studying a plethora of biological questions, including developmental processes, effects of external cues on phenotype, and human disease modeling. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that contributes to gene regulation, and is prevalent in all vertebrates. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) is a cost-effective technique to generate genome-wide DNA methylation maps and has been used in mammalian genomes (e.g., human, mouse and rat) but not in zebrafish. High-resolution DNA methylation data in zebrafish are limited: increased availability of such data will enable us to model and better understand the roles, causes and consequences of changes in DNA methylation. Here we present five high-resolution DNA methylation maps for wild-type zebrafish brain (two pooled male and two pooled female methylomes) and liver. These data were generated using the RRBS technique (includes 1.43 million CpG sites of zebrafish genome) on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Alignment to the reference genome was performed using the Zv9 genome assembly.To our knowledge, these datasets are the only RRBS datasets and base-resolution DNA methylation data available at this time for zebrafish brain and liver. These datasets could serve as a resource for future studies to document the functional role of DNA methylation in zebrafish. In addition, these datasets could be used as controls while performing analysis on treated samples. © 2014 The Authors.


Mumme K.,University of Auckland | Gray C.,University of Auckland | Reynolds C.M.,University of Auckland | Vickers M.H.,University of Auckland | And 8 more authors.
Metabolomics | Year: 2016

Introduction: Maternal obesity is associated with a range of pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction (FGR), whereby a fetus fails to reach its genetically determined growth. Placental insufficiency and reduced nutrient transport play a role in the onset of FGR. Objectives: Metabolomic profiling was used to reveal altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways in a model of diet induced obesity during pregnancy, leading to reduced fetal growth. Methods: We examined the metabolome of maternal and fetal livers, and placenta following a high fat and salt intake. Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned to (a) control diet (CD; 1 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (b) high salt diet (SD; 4 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (c) high fat diet (HF; 1 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) or (d) high-fat high-salt diet (HFSD; 4 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) 21 days prior to pregnancy and during gestation. Metabolites from maternal and fetal livers, and placenta were identified using gas and liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Results: Maternal HF intake resulted in reduced fetal weight. Altered metabolite profiles were observed in the HF maternal and fetal liver, and placenta. Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism was significantly altered in maternal and fetal liver by maternal fat intake. Conclusion: Excess of linoleic and α-linoleic acid (essential fatty acids) may be detrimental during placentation and associated with a reduction in fetal weight. Additionally, maternal, placental and fetal response to increased fat consumption seems likely to involve palmitoleic acid utilization as an adaptive response during maternal obesity. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Fraser M.,University of Auckland | Dhaliwal C.K.,University of Auckland | Vickers M.H.,University of Auckland | Krechowec S.O.,University of Auckland | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine | Year: 2016

Previously we reported that prenatal undernutrition (UN) leads to a dysregulation of appetite suppression through alterations in hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression. In the current study, we expand our observations and investigate neuroendocrine transcriptional responses and central leptin sensitivity within the arcuate nucleus of rats exposed to prenatal UN or a postnatal high-fat diet (HF). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet either ad libitum (AD) or at 30 % of AD intake throughout gestation (UN) resulting in either control or intrauterine growth-restricted female offspring. At weaning, AD offspring were fed either a chow (C) or a HF (30 % fat wt/wt) diet ad libitum for the remainder of the study, whereas UN offspring were fed a chow diet only. At ~142 days, AD and UN offspring received either recombinant rat leptin (L) or saline (S) subcutaneously for 14 days. Prenatal UN had a significant effect on hypothalamic NPY (P < 0.0001), AgRP (P < 0.01) and ObRb (P < 0.02) mRNA expression compared to AD chow-fed offspring. A postnatal HF diet had a significant effect on AgRP mRNA expression (P < 0.001), compared to AD chow-fed offspring, but no effect on NPY and ObRb expression. Leptin treatment, in both UN and HF offspring, was ineffective in reducing NPY and AgRP mRNA expression, and had no effect on ObRb expression. These findings suggest that prenatal UN and a postnatal HF diet lead to differential neuroendocrine gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei and reduced sensitivity to leptin’s anorexigenic effects. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Chatterjee A.,University of Otago | Ozaki Y.,University of Otago | Stockwell P.A.,University of Otago | Stockwell P.A.,New Zealand Genomics Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Epigenetics | Year: 2013

Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) has been used to profile DNA methylation patterns in mammalian genomes such as human, mouse and rat. The methylome of the zebrafish, an important animal model, has not yet been characterized at base-pair resolution using RRBS. Therefore, we evaluated the technique of RRBS in this model organism by generating four single-nucleotide resolution DNA methylomes of adult zebrafish brain. We performed several simulations to show the distribution of fragments and enrichment of CpGs in different in silico reduced representation genomes of zebrafish. Four RRBS brain libraries generated 98 million sequenced reads and had higher frequencies of multiple mapping than equivalent human RRBS libraries. The zebrafish methylome indicates there is higher global DNA methylation in the zebrafish genome compared with its equivalent human methylome. This observation was confirmed by RRBS of zebrafish liver. High coverage CpG dinucleotides are enriched in CpG island shores more than in the CpG island core. We found that 45% of the mapped CpGs reside in gene bodies, and 7% in gene promoters. This analysis provides a roadmap for generating reproducible base-pair level methylomes for zebrafish using RRBS and our results provide the first evidence that RRBS is a suitable technique for global methylation analysis in zebrafish. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.


Seneviratne S.N.,University of Auckland | Parry G.K.,University of Auckland | Parry G.K.,Middlemore Hospital | McCowan L.M.E.,Gravida National Center for Growth and Development | And 10 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring and mother. Lifestyle interventions in pregnancy such as antenatal exercise, are proposed to improve both short- and long-term health of mother and child. We hypothesise that regular moderate-intensity exercise during the second half of pregnancy will result in improved maternal and offspring outcomes, including a reduction in birth weight and adiposity in the offspring, which may be protective against obesity in later life.Methods/Design: The IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Risks of Obesity Via Exercise) study is a two-arm parallel randomised controlled clinical trial being conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Overweight and obese women (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) aged 18-40 years, with a singleton pregnancy of <20 weeks of gestation, from the Auckland region, are eligible for the trial. Exclusion criteria are ongoing smoking or medical contra-indications to antenatal exercise.Participants are randomised with 1:1 allocation ratio to either intervention or control group, using computer-generated randomisation sequences in variable block sizes, stratified on ethnicity and parity, after completion of baseline assessments. The intervention consists of a 16-week structured home-based moderate-intensity exercise programme utilising stationary cycles and heart rate monitors, commencing at 20 weeks of gestation. The control group do not receive any exercise intervention. Both groups undergo regular fetal ultrasonography and receive standard antenatal care. Due to the nature of the intervention, participants are un-blinded to group assignment during the trial.The primary outcome is offspring birth weight. Secondary offspring outcomes include fetal and neonatal body composition and anthropometry, neonatal complications and cord blood metabolic markers. Maternal outcomes include weight gain, pregnancy and delivery complications, aerobic fitness, quality of life, metabolic markers and post-partum body composition.Discussion: The results of this trial will provide valuable insights on the effects of antenatal exercise on health outcomes in overweight and obese mothers and their offspring. © 2014 Seneviratne et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Seneviratne S.N.,University of Auckland | Jiang Y.,University of Auckland | Derraik J.G.B.,University of Auckland | McCowan L.M.E.,Gravida National Center for Growth and Development | And 10 more authors.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2016

Objective To assess whether antenatal exercise in overweight/obese women would improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. Design Two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial. Setting Home-based intervention in Auckland, New Zealand. Population and sample Pregnant women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. Methods Participants were randomised to a 16-week moderate-intensity stationary cycling programme from 20 weeks of gestation, or to a control group with no exercise intervention. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was offspring birthweight. Perinatal and maternal outcomes were assessed, with the latter including weight gain, aerobic fitness, quality of life, pregnancy outcomes, and postnatal body composition. Exercise compliance was recorded with heart rate monitors. Results Seventy-five participants were randomised in the study (intervention 38, control 37). Offspring birthweight (adjusted mean difference 104 g; P = 0.35) and perinatal outcomes were similar between groups. Aerobic fitness improved in the intervention group compared with controls (48.0-second improvement in test time to target heart rate; P = 0.019). There was no difference in weight gain, quality of life, pregnancy outcomes or postnatal maternal body composition between groups. However, compliance with exercise protocol was poor, with an average of 33% of exercise sessions completed. Sensitivity analyses showed that greater compliance was associated with improved fitness (increased test time (P = 0.002), greater VO2 peak (P = 0.015), and lower resting heart rate (P = 0.014)), reduced postnatal adiposity (reduced fat mass (P = 0.007) and body mass index (P = 0.035)) and better physical quality of life (P = 0.034). Conclusions Maternal non-weight-bearing moderate-intensity exercise in pregnancy improved fitness but did not affect birthweight or clinical outcomes. Tweetable abstract Moderate-intensity exercise in overweight/obese pregnant women improved fitness but had no clinical effects. Tweetable abstract Moderate-intensity exercise in overweight/obese pregnant women improved fitness but had no clinical effects. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.


Poynton R.A.,Gravida National Center for Growth and Development | Hampton M.B.,University of Otago
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2014

Background Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a class of abundant thiol peroxidases that degrade hydroperoxides to water. Prxs are sensitive to oxidation, and it is hypothesized that they also act as redox sensors. The accumulation of oxidized Prxs may indicate disruption of cellular redox homeostasis. Scope of review This review discusses the biochemical properties of the Prxs that make them suitable as endogenous biomarkers of oxidative stress, and describes the methodology available for measuring Prx oxidation in biological systems. Major conclusions Two Prx oxidation products accumulate in cells under increased oxidative stress: an intermolecular disulfide and a hyperoxidized form. Methodologies are available for measuring both of these redox states, and oxidation has been reported in cells and tissues under oxidative stress from external or internal sources. General significance Monitoring the oxidation state of Prxs provides insight into disturbances of cellular redox homeostasis, and complements the use of exogenous probes of oxidative stress. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Current methods to study reactive oxygen species - pros and cons and biophysics of membrane proteins. Guest Editor: Christine Winterbourn. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Auckland and Gravida National Center for Growth and Development
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology | Year: 2016

To assess whether antenatal exercise in overweight/obese women would improve maternal and perinatal outcomes.Two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial.Home-based intervention in Auckland, New Zealand.Pregnant women with body mass index 25 kg/m(2) .Participants were randomised to a 16-week moderate-intensity stationary cycling programme from 20 weeks of gestation, or to a control group with no exercise intervention.Primary outcome was offspring birthweight. Perinatal and maternal outcomes were assessed, with the latter including weight gain, aerobic fitness, quality of life, pregnancy outcomes, and postnatal body composition. Exercise compliance was recorded with heart rate monitors.Seventy-five participants were randomised in the study (intervention 38, control 37). Offspring birthweight (adjusted mean difference 104 g; P = 0.35) and perinatal outcomes were similar between groups. Aerobic fitness improved in the intervention group compared with controls (48.0-second improvement in test time to target heart rate; P = 0.019). There was no difference in weight gain, quality of life, pregnancy outcomes or postnatal maternal body composition between groups. However, compliance with exercise protocol was poor, with an average of 33% of exercise sessions completed. Sensitivity analyses showed that greater compliance was associated with improved fitness (increased test time (P = 0.002), greater VO2 peak (P = 0.015), and lower resting heart rate (P = 0.014)), reduced postnatal adiposity (reduced fat mass (P = 0.007) and body mass index (P = 0.035)) and better physical quality of life (P = 0.034).Maternal non-weight-bearing moderate-intensity exercise in pregnancy improved fitness but did not affect birthweight or clinical outcomes.Moderate-intensity exercise in overweight/obese pregnant women improved fitness but had no clinical effects.


PubMed | University of Otago and Gravida National Center for Growth and Development
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

The extent of variation in DNA methylation patterns in healthy individuals is not yet well documented. Identification of inter-individual epigenetic variation is important for understanding phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. Using neutrophils from a cohort of healthy individuals, we generated base-resolution DNA methylation maps to document inter-individual epigenetic variation. We identified 12851 autosomal inter-individual variably methylated fragments (iVMFs). Gene promoters were the least variable, whereas gene body and upstream regions showed higher variation in DNA methylation. The iVMFs were relatively enriched in repetitive elements compared to non-iVMFs, and were associated with genome regulation and chromatin function elements. Further, variably methylated genes were disproportionately associated with regulation of transcription, responsive function and signal transduction pathways. Transcriptome analysis indicates that iVMF methylation at differentially expressed exons has a positive correlation and local effect on the inclusion of that exon in the mRNA transcript.


PubMed | University of Auckland and Gravida National Center for Growth and Development
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Endocrine | Year: 2016

Previously we reported that prenatal undernutrition (UN) leads to a dysregulation of appetite suppression through alterations in hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression. In the current study, we expand our observations and investigate neuroendocrine transcriptional responses and central leptin sensitivity within the arcuate nucleus of rats exposed to prenatal UN or a postnatal high-fat diet (HF). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet either ad libitum (AD) or at 30% of AD intake throughout gestation (UN) resulting in either control or intrauterine growth-restricted female offspring. At weaning, AD offspring were fed either a chow (C) or a HF (30% fat wt/wt) diet ad libitum for the remainder of the study, whereas UN offspring were fed a chow diet only. At ~142days, AD and UN offspring received either recombinant rat leptin (L) or saline (S) subcutaneously for 14days. Prenatal UN had a significant effect on hypothalamic NPY (P<0.0001), AgRP (P<0.01) and ObRb (P<0.02) mRNA expression compared to AD chow-fed offspring. A postnatal HF diet had a significant effect on AgRP mRNA expression (P<0.001), compared to AD chow-fed offspring, but no effect on NPY and ObRb expression. Leptin treatment, in both UN and HF offspring, was ineffective in reducing NPY and AgRP mRNA expression, and had no effect on ObRb expression. These findings suggest that prenatal UN and a postnatal HF diet lead to differential neuroendocrine gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei and reduced sensitivity to leptins anorexigenic effects.

Loading Gravida National Center for Growth and Development collaborators
Loading Gravida National Center for Growth and Development collaborators